lunes, 19 de junio de 2017

Safe management of wastes from health-care activities

The waste produced in the course of health-care activities, from contaminated needles to radioactive isotopes, carries a greater potential for causing infection and injury than any other type of waste, and inadequate or inappropriate management is likely to have serious public health consequences and deleterious effects on the environment. This handbook – the result of extensive international consultation and collaboration – provides comprehensive guidance on safe, efficient, and environmentally sound methods for the handling and disposal of health-care wastes in normal situations and emergencies. Future issues such as climate change and the changing patterns of diseases and their impacts on health-care waste management are also discussed. For health-care settings in which resources are severely limited, the handbook pays particular attention to basic processes and technologies that are not only safe, but also affordable, sustainable, and culturally appropriate. The guide is aimed at public health managers and policy-makers, hospital managers, environmental health professionals, and all administrators with an interest in and responsibility for waste management. Its scope is such that it will find application in developing and developed countries alike.

Safe management of wastes from health-care activities

Edited by Yves Chartier, Jorge Emmanuel, Ute Pieper,Annette Prüss,
Philip Rushbrook, Ruth Stringer, William Townend,
Susan Wilburn and Raki Zghondi.
© 2014, WHO
ISBN 978 92 4 154856 4
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miércoles, 14 de junio de 2017

Sobre el Simposio de Bioseguridad 2017

Con gran entusiasmo se llevó a cabo el 9º Simposio de Bioseguridad organizado por AMEXBIO en la ciudad de Morelia Michoacán el pasado 7 al 10 de Junio 2017, con el tema "CONTENCIÓN HOSPITALARIA". Los cursos presimposio impartidos, como todos los años, incluyeron temas de gran relevancia para el trabajo diario en el manejo de patógenos, incluyendo: uso de equipo de protección personal, manejo de residuos RPBI, diseño de laboratorios, entre otros.
Durante el simposio de tocaron temas como la resistencia microbiana a los antibióticos, el control de infecciones hospitalarias, la gestión de riesgos, la salud ocupacional, la biología sintética, descontaminación entre otros. Entre las diversas noticias que se tuvieron este año, es que el próximo año el simposio se llevará a cabo en Puerto Vallarta, para conmemorar y festejar el 10º Simposio de la AMEXBIO. Resúmenes periodísticos del simposio se vieron publicados en: Arizona State University, Quadratín Michoacán, Provincia El Diario Grande de Michoacán, entre otros.
La Asociación como siempre agradece el patrocinio de MERRICK México, Camfil, Procequip, DUO, Métrix, Éviter, Microbios y Lab-Tech, ya que sin su apoyo, el simposio de 2017 no se llevaría a cabo.

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lunes, 5 de junio de 2017

Medidas de control de infecciones en la atención sanitaria de pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias agudas en entornos comunitarios

El propósito del presente documento es proporcionar a los instructores material para el adiestramiento de los agentes de salud comunitarios (ASC) y otro personal sanitario en la atención segura de los pacientes de ERA tanto en el hogar como en dispensarios de la comunidad. En él se presenta información acerca de ciertos tipos de ERA, como el SRAS y la gripe aviar, afecciones consideradas de potencial impacto internacional por suponer un riesgo para la salud pública mundial, pero también incluye información que se aplica a todas las ERA. La guía incluye instrucciones sobre el uso de equipo de protección personal (EPP) (por ejemplo, mascarillas y guantes), controles ambientales (limpieza y desinfección, eliminación de desechos) y otras estrategias (lavado de manos, cómo proceder en caso de tos, distancia de los pacientes) con el fin de reducir el riesgo de exposición. El contenido del presente documento recoge las orientaciones presentadas en Prevención y control de infección en enfermedades respiratorias agudas con tendencia epidémica y pandémica durante la atención sanitaria - Pautas provisionales de la OMS.


Medidas de control de infecciones en la atención sanitaria de pacientes con enfermedades respiratorias agudas en entornos comunitarios

Publication details
Publication date: 2009
  1. Download document (English)
  2. Chinese
  3. French
  4. Spanish
WHO reference number: WHO/HSE/GAR/BDP/2009.1
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lunes, 22 de mayo de 2017

Laboratory Biorisk Management Strategic Framework for Action

Although laboratory biosecurity is a relatively new concept to many, biosafety has been an established discipline for several decades. These fields have recently been elevated in prominence for a number of reasons, including laboratory acquired infections associated with SARS, the anthrax attacks in the US postal service, and renewed interest in the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), together with emerging issues relating to the rapid growth of biotechnology and concerns over the potential for illicit use of such technologies.
However, despite significant investments in this field during the last decade, and progress made in strengthening biorisk management, many countries remain without effective regulatory and oversight mechanisms, and levels of awareness are often low amongst regulators and laboratory personnel alike. In addition, basic information relating to laboratory design and operating parameters is often confusing, with a lack of evidence to underpin many commonly used controls.
Developing countries in particular often struggle to implement solutions which have been designed for use in other parts of the world where different working conditions prevail. Adequate support services are also needed to operate laboratories. However, effective supplier networks, maintenance provision and other basic measures are often unavailable to those most in need.
At present there is no overarching framework or global strategy in this area to provide strategic direction to ensure that investments are planned and implemented appropriately to meet these needs. Without such strategic planning, biorisk management runs the danger of failing to meet the objective of delivering solutions that allow countries to build stand-alone capacity and capability.
This plan sets out a basis and rationale for WHO’s role in supporting the measures and mechanisms required to move towards the objective of supporting safe and secure environments in and around every laboratory in the world.

Laboratory Biorisk Management Strategic Framework for Action 2012–2016
Publication details
Number of pages: 16
Publication date: 2012
Languages: English
WHO reference number: WHO/HSE/2012.3

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lunes, 1 de mayo de 2017

Prevalence and characterization of murine leukemia virus contamination in human cell lines

Contaminations of cell cultures with microbiological organisms are well documented and can be managed in cell culture laboratories applying reliable detection, elimination and prevention strategies. However, the presence of viral contaminations in cell cultures is still a matter of debate and cannot be determined with general detection methods. In the present study we screened 577 human cell lines for the presence of murine leukemia viruses (MLV). Nineteen cell lines were found to be contaminated with MLV, including 22RV1 which is contaminated with the xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus variant of MLV. Of these, 17 cell lines were shown to produce active retroviruses determined by product enhanced reverse transcriptase PCR assay for reverse transcriptase activity. The contaminated cell lines derive from various solid tumor types as well as from leukemia and lymphoma types. A contamination of primary human cells from healthy volunteers could not be substantiated. Sequence analyses of 17 MLV PCR products and five complete MLV genomes of different infected cell lines revealed at least three groups of related MLV genotypes. The viruses harvested from the supernatants of infected cell cultures were infectious to uninfected cell cultures. In the course of the study we found that contamination of human genomic DNA preparations with murine DNA can lead to false-positive results. Presumably, xenotransplantations of the human tumor cells into immune-deficient mice to determine the tumorigenicity of the cells are mainly responsible for the MLV contaminations. Furthermore, the use of murine feeder layer cells during the establishment of human cell lines and a cross-contamination with MLV from infected cultures might be sources of infection. A screening of cell cultures for MLV contamination is recommended given a contamination rate of 3.3%.

Uphoff CC, Lange S, Denkmann SA, Garritsen HS, Drexler HG. Prevalence and characterization of murine leukemia virus contamination in human cell lines. PLoS One. 2015 Apr 30;10(4):e0125622. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0125622. eCollection 2015. PubMed PMID: 25927683; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC4416031.
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lunes, 24 de abril de 2017

LIBRO: Prevención de las infecciones nosocomiales, 2a edicíon, Guía práctica

Prevencíon de las infecciones nosocomiales, 2a edicíon, Guía práctica Prevention of hospital-acquired infections, 2nd edition. A practical guide
Índice Contents
Introducción Introduction
Capítulo I. Epidemiología de las infecciones nosocomiales Chapter I. Epidemiology of nosocomial infections
Capítulo II. Programas de control de infecciones Chapter II. Infection control programmes
Capítulo III. Vigilancia de las infecciones nosocomiales Chapter III. Nosocomial infection surveillance
Capítulo IV. Forma de abordar los brotes Chapter IV. dealing with outbreaks
Capítulo V. Prevención de las infecciones nosocomiales  Chapter V. Prevention of nosocomial infections
Capítulo VI. Prevención de las infecciones nosocomiales endémicas comunes Chapter VI. Prevention of common endemic nosocomial infections
Capítulo VII. Precauciones para el control de infecciones durante la atencíon del paciente Chapter VII. Infection control precautiopns in patient care 
Capítulo VIII. Medio ambiente Chapter VIII. Environment
Capítulo IX. Uso de antimicrobianos y farmacorresistencia Chapter IX. Antimicrobial use and antimicrobial resistance
Capítulo X. Prevención de infecciones del personal Chapter X. Preventing infections of staff
Anexo 1. Lecturas recomendadas Annex 1. Suggested further reading
Anexo 2. Recursos disponibles en Internet Annex 2. Internet resources

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lunes, 17 de abril de 2017

Xenotropic retrovirus Bxv1 in human pancreatic β cell lines

It has been reported that endogenous retroviruses can contaminate human cell lines that have been passaged as xenotransplants in immunocompromised mice. We previously developed and described 2 human pancreatic β cell lines (EndoC-βH1 and EndoC-βH2) that were generated in this way. Here, we have shown that B10 xenotropic virus 1 (Bxv1), a xenotropic endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV), is present in these 2 recently described cell lines. We determined that Bxv1 was also present in SCID mice that were used for in vivo propagation of EndoC-βH1/2 cells, suggesting that contamination occurred during xenotransplantation. EndoC-βH1/2 cells released Bxv1 particles that propagated to human 293T and Mus dunni cells. Mobilization assays demonstrated that Bxv1 transcomplements defective MuLV-based retrovectors. In contrast, common rodent β cell lines, rat INS-1E and RIN-5F cells and mouse MIN6 and βTC3 cells, displayed either no or extremely weak xenotropic helper activity toward MuLV-based retrovectors, although xenotropic retrovirus sequences and transcripts were detected in both mouse cell lines. Bxv1 propagation from EndoC-βH1/2 to 293T cells occurred only under optimized conditions and was overall poorly efficient. Thus, although our data imply that MuLV-based retrovectors should be cautiously used in EndoC-βH1/2 cells, our results indicate that an involuntary propagation of Bxv1 from these cells can be easily avoided with good laboratory practices.
Kirkegaard JS, et al. Xenotropic retrovirus Bxv1 in human pancreatic β cell lines. J Clin Invest. 2016 Mar 1;126(3):1109-13.

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lunes, 10 de abril de 2017

Use and misuse of material transfer agreements: lessons in proportionality from research, repositories, and litigation

Material transfer agreements exist to facilitate the exchange of materials and associated data between researchers as well as to protect the interests of the researchers and their institutions. But this dual mandate can be a source of frustration for researchers, creating administrative burdens and slowing down collaborations. We argue here that in most cases in pre-competitive research, a simple agreement would suffice; the more complex agreements and mechanisms for their negotiation should be reserved for cases where the risks posed to the institution and the potential commercial value of the research reagents is high.

Bubela T, Guebert J, Mishra A. Use and misuse of material transfer agreements: lessons in proportionality from research, repositories, and litigation. PLoS Biol. 2015 Feb 3;13(2):e1002060.

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lunes, 3 de abril de 2017

Virus contaminations of cell cultures – A biotechnological view

In contrast to contamination by microbes and mycoplasma, which can be relatively easily detected, viral contamination present a serious threat because of the difficulty in detecting some viruses and the lack of effective methods of treating infected cell cultures. While some viruses are capable of causing morphological changes to infected cells (e.g. cytopathic effect)which are detectable by microscopy some viral contaminations result in the integration of the viral genome as provirus, this causes no visual evidence, by means of modification of the cellular morphology. Virus production from such cell lines, are potentially dangerous for other cell cultures (in research labs)by cross contaminations, or for operators and patients (in the case of the production of injectable biologicals) because of potential infection. The only way to keep cell cultures for research, development, and the biotech industry virus-free is the prevention of such contaminations. Cell cultures can become contaminated by the following means: firstly, they may already be contaminated as primary cultures (because the source of the cells was already infected), secondly, they were contaminated due to the use of contaminated raw materials, or thirdly, they were contaminated via an animal passage. This overview describes the problems and risks associated with viral contaminations in animal cell culture, describes the origins of these contaminations as well as the most important virsuses associated with viral contaminations in cell culture. In addition, ways to prevent viral contaminations as well as measures undertaken to avoid and assess risks for viral contaminations as performed in the biotech industry are briefly described.
Merten, O.-W. “Virus Contaminations of Cell Cultures – A Biotechnological View.” Cytotechnology 39.2 (2002): 91–116. PMC. Web. 3 Apr. 2017.

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Material Transfer Agreements: A University Perspective

Scientists have traditionally shared research materials freely, and indeed an important criterion for scientific publication has been the unfettered ability of other researchers to experimentally reproduce and thereby test published results. That ability to replicate results will often rely on access to the underlying biological materials or information, but that access is not assured today. So what has changed? Probably the most significant factor has been the narrowing of the gap between fundamental research and commercial developments, particularly in the biomedical arena, but it is also evident in agricultural biology (Rai and Eisenberg, 2001). Materials that at one time would have been useful almost exclusively for fundamental research purposes are increasingly seen as having direct commercial value, and this has generated a new breed of company that focuses on leveraging novel research tools to discover new commercially valuable traits, genes, or compounds. Naturally, these companies are reluctant to share their “crown jewels” without making sure that their business interests are protected. Also of significance has been the changing role of universities, which are today actively using the patent system as a means of transferring its research results into the private sector and often conduct research that is sponsored by private companies.

Streitz, Wendy D., and Alan B. Bennett. “Material Transfer Agreements: A University Perspective.” Plant Physiology 133.1 (2003): 10–13. PMC. Web. 30 Mar. 2017.
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