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martes, 2 de septiembre de 2014

Infection Control During Filoviral Hemorrhagic Fever Outbreaks #Ebola

Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg) hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

REFERENCES:
  1. Raabea VN, Borcherta M. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic Fever outbreaks. J Glob Infect Dis. 2012 Jan;4(1):69-74.
  2. CDC Interim Guidance for Environmental Infection Control in Hospitals for Ebola Virus
  3. WHO Interim Infection Prevention and Control Guidance for Care of Patients with Suspected or Confirmed Filovirus Haemorrhagic Fever  in Health-Care Settings, with Focus on Ebola
  4. Health Canada. Interim Biosafety Guidelines for Laboratories Handling Specimens from Patients Under Investigation for Ebola Virus Disease
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jueves, 28 de agosto de 2014

.@WHO & CDC Interim Guidelines for #Ebola

CDC ebola print resources
This document provides a summary of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures for those providing direct and non-direct care to patients with suspected or confirmed cases of Filovirus haemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fevers, in health-care facilities (HCFs). It also includes some instructions and directions for those managing the implementation of IPC activities. These IPC measures should be applied not only by health-care professionals but by anyone in direct contact with patients (e.g., visitors, family members, volunteers), as well as by those not in contact with patients but potentially exposed the virus through contact with the environment (e.g., c leaners, laundry, house-keepers, security).
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martes, 26 de agosto de 2014

Safe management of wastes from healthcare activities - Second edition

The waste produced in the course of health-care activities, from contaminated needles to radioactive isotopes, carries a greater potential for causing infection and injury than any other type of waste, and inadequate or inappropriate management is likely to have serious public health consequences and deleterious effects on the environment. This handbook – the result of extensive international consultation and collaboration – provides comprehensive guidance on safe, efficient, and environmentally sound methods for the handling and disposal of health-care wastes in normal situations and emergencies. Future issues such as climate change and the changing patterns of diseases and their impacts on health-care waste management are also discussed.
For health-care settings in which resources are severely limited, the handbook pays particular attention to basic processes and technologies that are not only safe, but also affordable, sustainable, and culturally appropriate. The guide is aimed at public health managers and policy-makers, hospital managers, environmental health professionals, and all administrators with an interest in and responsibility for waste management. Its scope is such that it will find application in developing and developed countries alike.
REFERENCIA:
Safe management of wastes from healthcare activities - Second edition
DESCARGA OPCIONAL
Edited by Yves Chartier, Jorge Emmanuel, Ute Pieper,Annette Prüss,
Philip Rushbrook, Ruth Stringer, William Townend,
Susan Wilburn and Raki Zghondi.
© 2014, WHO
ISBN 978 92 4 154856 4
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lunes, 25 de agosto de 2014

viernes, 22 de agosto de 2014

IFBA Certification of Biorisk Management Professionals

DESCARGAR 
Certification Program
Ensuring Quality Biorisk Management 
Through  Certification of Professionals
The International Federation of Biosafety Associations (IFBA) is launching a new certification program for biorisk management and biosafety professionals worldwide. This distinctive program strives to fulfill our mission of “safe, secure and responsible work with biological materials” by advancing the body of knowledge and increasing the competency of our profession. IFBA’s certificants bring increased value to their employers by demonstrating competence to carry out their responsibilities and by achieving high standards of excellence, professionalism, and continuous learning. By earning certifications from the IFBA, individuals reap the benefits of safer workplaces, career advancement, and international recognition among colleagues.
Professional certifications are offered in the following technical disciplines:

  • Biorisk Management (Pre-requisite certification for all others)
  • Biological Waste Management
  • Biocontainment Laboratory Design & Maintenance (coming soon)
  • Laboratory Biosecurity (coming soon)
  • Biological Safety Cabinets (coming soon)

For further information please visit www.internationalbiosafety.org
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jueves, 21 de agosto de 2014

The International #Ebola Emergency

On August 8, 33 weeks into the longest, largest, and most widespread Ebola outbreak on record, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). This declaration was not made lightly. A PHEIC is an instrument of the International Health Regulations (IHR) — a legally binding agreement made by 196 countries on containment of major international health threats.
The August 8 statement made by WHO Director-General Margaret Chan followed advice from the independent IHR Emergency Committee. Reviewing all the available evidence, the committee concluded that further international spread of Ebola could have serious consequences. Their concern was based on the continuing transmission of Ebola in West African communities and health facilities, the high case fatality rate of Ebola virus disease (EVD), and the weak health services of Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, and other neighboring countries at risk for infection.
REFERENCIA

Briand S. et al. The International Ebola Emergency. NEJM 2014.

lunes, 18 de agosto de 2014

¿Cómo ayudar al control de la epidemia de #ébola?

 Por Klintsy Torres
DESCARGAR POSTER
El virus del ébola es muy contagioso, y el 54% de las personas infectadas en la actual epidemia del ébola han muerto. Los países africanos más afectados son Guinea, Liberia y Sierra Leona. Y a pesar de los esfuerzo, la epidemia no disminuye.
El principal problema es la falta de equipo de protección personal, tan básico como guantes y batas. Muchos trabajadores de la salud ha muerto por falta de equipo de protección, o han cerrado los centros de atención por miedo al virus. Pero también hace mucha falta personal médico entrenado que atienda a los pacientes enfermos, pero también que se dedique a buscar contactos de las personas.
Desafortunadamente, no podremos enviar guantes o mascarillas por correo a la gente que esta haciendo la batalla, pero si podemos ayudar a las organizaciones que día a día trabajan para el control de la epidemia. Apelo a las buenas intenciones de las personas que leen este blog, y que saben que nuestro trabajo es, ha sido y seguirá siendo sin ánimos de lucro.

Crowdfunding para el la atención de pacientes con ébola 
en áreas rurales en Kono, Sierra Leona: 
    Regala una caja de guantes!! Por eso, aquí una lista de las organizaciones, que enviando a su gente, intentan controlar esta epidemia, pero que necesitan fondos para ampliar su ayuda:
  1. Cruz Roja Británica. Está colectando fondos, que van directamente a gastos para el control de la epidemia. Si después de que la emergencia ha terminado, los fondos restantes serán utilizados en otras emergencias humanitarias. 
  2. Médicos Sin Fronteras México y Médecins Sans Frontiers (Internacional). Los fondos son canalizados al fondo global de emergencias, pero que son usados activamente en las emergencias actuales, incluyendo la epidemia de ébola. 
  3. UNICEF. Los donativos, cuando son otorgados como "Where most needed", van al fondo de emergencias, que además reciben fondos del Fondo Central de Respuestas de Emergencias de la ONU. Los donativos directos de México están desactivados, pero pueden hacerlo eligiendo "Otros Países". 
  4. AFRICARE. Apoya directamente a la adquisición de equipo de protección personal (EPP) para los trabajadores de la salud en Liberia. 
  5. DIRECT RELIEF. Apoya directamente con envíos de equipo médico y EPP en Liberia y Sierra Leona. Una de las 20 ONGs más eficientes. Hace entregas en especie. 
  6. WELLBODY ALLIANCE. En colaboración con UCSF están realizando un Crowdfunding para el la atención de pacientes con ébola en áreas rurales en Kono, Sierra Leona. https://crowdfund.ucsf.edu/project/53e4f5e60920655b8211663c
  7. Otras organizaciones que están realizando actividades de apoyo al control de la epidemia incluyen: a) ActionAid (UK); b) Samaritans Purse (Asociación cristiana); c) Medical Teams International (apoyo médico in Liberia), d) Giving Global (Sierra Leona); e) CARE (imprime material informativo en Sierra Leona); 
Como DIRECT RELIEF hace notar, una donación de tan sólo 6 dólares ayudan a comprar algo tan esencial como 1 caja de guantes de látex!
Recomendación: Antes de hacer una donación, hagan un poco de investigación, sobre quien va manejar su dinero, es importante que el dinero se utilice en lo que queremos apoyar. Pueden revisar la seriedad de las ONG´s en BBB y Charity Navigator. Si conocen otras organización que realice trabajos para el control del ébola, envíenme un mensaje para ampliar la lista.


REFERENCIAS:

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Evaluation of mycobactericidal activity of selected chemical disinfectants

BACKGROUND: The history of the investigation of standardized mycobactericidal activity of disinfectants and antiseptics is not very long. There is growing interest among the manufacturers of disinfectants in carrying out research on the antimicrobial activities in accordance with European standards (EN). This research could facilitate the introduction of high-quality disinfectants to the market. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mycobactericidal activity of selected chemical disinfectants and antiseptics used in the medical and veterinary fields.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: This study included 19 products submitted to the National Medicines Institute in Poland for evaluation of mycobactericidal activity. These products contain in their composition active substances belonging to different chemical groups, including aldehydes, alcohols, amines, quaternary ammonium compounds, phenols, guanidine, and oxidizing compounds. This study, conducted according to the manufacturers' description of the preparations, was carried out in accordance with European standards, which also met the Polish standards: PN-EN 14204: 2013, PN-EN 14348: 2006, and PN-EN 14563: 2012.
RESULTS: Tested products for disinfection and antiseptics containing active substances from different chemical groups showed high mycobactericidal activity and met the requirements of the appropriate European standards in most cases. In the case of products containing guanidine and amine compounds, the concentration of active ingredients used in the test and the test conditions specified by the manufacturer did not provide the mycobactericidal activity required by the standards.
CONCLUSIONS: Prior to the launch of a new product on the market, it is important to establish the appropriate usage and testing conditions of the preparation, such as its practical concentration, contact time, and environment condition (clean or dirty).
REFERENCIA
Bocian E, Grzybowska W, Tyski S. Evaluation of mycobactericidal activity of selected chemical disinfectants and antiseptics according to European standards. Med Sci Monit. 2014 Apr 22;20:666-73.
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jueves, 14 de agosto de 2014

2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings #ebola


  • GUIDELINE FOR ISOLATION PRECATIONS:

This document is intended for use by infection control staff, healthcare epidemiologists, healthcare administrators, nurses, other healthcare providers, and persons responsible for developing, implementing, and evaluating infection control programs for healthcare settings across the continuum of care. The reader is referred to other guidelines and websites for more detailed information and for recommendations concerning specialized infection control problems.

  • INFECTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL FOR PATIENTS CARE WITH EBOLA:

This document provides a summary of infection control recommendations when providing direct and non-direct care to patients with suspected or confirmed Filovirus haemorrhagic fever (HF), including Ebola or Marburg haemorrhagic fevers. These recommendations are interim and will be updated when additional information becomes available
DOWNLOAD: Interim Infection prevention and control guidance for care of patients with Suspected or Confirmed Filovirus Haemorrhagic fever in health-care settings, with focus on Ebola
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miércoles, 13 de agosto de 2014

Barriers to rapid containment of the #Ebola outbreak

By August 11, 2014, a total of 170 healthcare workers has been infected, 81 have died. 

The outbreak of Ebola virus disease in west Africa continues to evolve in alarming ways, with no immediate end in sight. Many barriers stand in the way of rapid containment.
The Ebola virus is highly contagious, but is not airborne. Transmission requires close contact with the bodily fluids of an infected person, as can occur during health-care procedures, home care, or traditional burial practices, which involve the close contact of family members and friends with bodies. 

ESPAÑOL:

El virus del Ebola es uno de los patógenos más virulentos. El equipo de protección personal es esencial, pero escasea. Además es caliente e incómodo, y limita mucho el número de horas que el personal médico y de enfermería puede trabajar en una planta de aislamiento. Según las estimaciones actuales, un centro en el que se estén tratando 70 pacientes necesitará como mínimo 250 profesionales sanitarios.

Ahora que el brote ha cumplido 6 meses, se comprueba que el miedo es el obstáculo más difícil de vencer. El miedo hace que los contactos de los casos escapen al sistema de vigilancia, que las familias escondan a los parientes con síntomas o los lleven a curanderos tradicionales, y que los pacientes huyan de los centros terapéuticos. El miedo y la hostilidad que este puede alimentar han puesto en peligro la seguridad de los equipos de respuesta nacionales e internacionales.

El personal sanitario teme por sus vidas. Hasta la fecha se han infectado más de 170 profesionales sanitarios y al menos 81 han fallecido.

REFERENCE:
En españolhttp://www.who.int/csr/disease/ebola/overview-august-2014/es/
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