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viernes, 28 de noviembre de 2014

Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector #Ebola Vaccine - Preliminary Report.

Background 
The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) has prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. 
Methods 
We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×1010 particle units or 2×1011 particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 4 weeks after vaccination. 
Results 
In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×1011 particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×1011 particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×1010 particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2x1011 particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×1010 particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07). 
Conclusions 
Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose-dependent. At the 2×1011 particle-unit dose, glycoprotein Zaire-specific antibody responses were in the range reported to be associated with vaccine-induced protective immunity in challenge studies involving nonhuman primates. Clinical trials assessing cAd3-EBO are ongoing. (Funded by the Intramural Research Program of the National Institutes of Health; VRC 207 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02231866 .).
REFERENCE:

Ledgerwood JE, et al; the VRC 207 Study Team. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine - Preliminary Report. N Engl J Med. 2014 Nov 26. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25426834.

lunes, 24 de noviembre de 2014

Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines

Recombinant subunit vaccines are some of the safest and most effective vaccines available, but their high cost and the requirement of advanced medical infrastructure for administration make them impractical for many developing world diseases. Plant-based vaccines have shifted that paradigm by paving the way for recombinant vaccine production at agricultural scale using an edible host. However, enthusiasm for “molecular pharming” in food crops has waned in the last decade due to difficulty in developing transgenic crop plants and concerns of contaminating the food supply. Microalgae could be poised to become the next candidate in recombinant subunit vaccine production, as they present several advantages over terrestrial crop plant-based platforms including scalable and contained growth, rapid transformation, easily obtained stable cell lines, and consistent transgene expression levels. Algae have been shown to accumulate and properly fold several vaccine antigens, and efforts are underway to create recombinant algal fusion proteins that can enhance antigenicity for effective orally delivered vaccines. These approaches have the potential to revolutionize the way subunit vaccines are made and delivered – from costly parenteral administration of purified protein, to an inexpensive oral algae tablet with effective mucosal and systemic immune reactivity.

REFERENCE:
Specht EA and Mayfield SP. Algae-based oral recombinant vaccines. Front Microbiol. 2014; 5: 60.
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jueves, 20 de noviembre de 2014

Preventing Health Care–Associated Infections

The occurrence and undesirable complications from health care–associated infections (HAIs) have been well recognized in the literature for the last several decades. The occurrence of HAIs continues to escalate at an alarming rate. HAIs originally referred to those infections associated with admission in an acute-care hospital (formerly called a nosocomial infection), but the term now applies to infections acquired in the continuum of settings where persons receive health care (e.g., long-term care, home care, ambulatory care). These unanticipated infections develop during the course of health care treatment and result in significant patient illnesses and deaths (morbidity and mortality); prolong the duration of hospital stays; and necessitate additional diagnostic and therapeutic interventions, which generate added costs to those already incurred by the patient’s underlying disease. HAIs are considered an undesirable outcome, and as some are preventable, they are considered an indicator of the quality of patient care, an adverse event, and a patient safety issue.

REFERENCIA:
Amy S. Collins. Chapter 41. Preventing Health Care-Associated Infections. From Patient Safety and Quality: An Evidence-Based Handbook for Nurses: Vol. 2.

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martes, 18 de noviembre de 2014

El virus de #Chikungunya

La fiebre chikungunya es una enfermedad vírica transmitida al ser humano por mosquitos infectados. Además de fiebre y fuertes dolores articulares, produce otros síntomas, tales como dolores musculares, dolores de cabeza, náuseas, cansancio y erupciones cutáneas.
Algunos signos clínicos de esta enfermedad son iguales a los del dengue, con el que se puede confundir en zonas donde este es frecuente. Como no tiene tratamiento curativo, el tratamiento se centra en el alivio de los síntomas. Un factor de riesgo importante es la proximidad de las viviendas a lugares de cría de los mosquitos. La enfermedad se da en África, Asia y el subcontinente indio. En los últimos decenios los vectores de la enfermedad se han propagado a Europa y las Américas. En 2007 se notificó por vez primera la transmisión de la enfermedad en Europa, en un brote localizado en el nordeste de Italia.

REFERENCIAS:
  1. WHO Chikungunya factsheet ESP
  2. Chikungunya: un nuevo virus en la región de las Américas
  3. Cuidados para prevenir y tratar el chikungunya
  4. CHIKUNGUNYA VIRUS. PATHOGEN SAFETY DATA SHEET - INFECTIOUS SUBSTANCES
  5. CDC: Chikungunya
  6. CDC: Chikungunya. Información para el público
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sábado, 8 de noviembre de 2014

How to conduct safe and dignified burial of a #ebola patient

Overview

This protocol provides information on the safe management of dead bodies and burial of patients who died from suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease. These measures should be applied not only by medical personnel but by anyone involved in the management of dead bodies and burial of suspected or confirmed Ebola patients.  Twelve steps have been identified describing the different phases Burial Teams have to follow to ensure safe burials, starting from the moment the teams arrive in the village up to their return to the hospital or team headquarters after burial and disinfection procedures.

DOWNLOAD => How to conduct safe and dignified burial of a patient who has died from suspected or confirmed Ebola virus disease

Publication details 

Number of pages17
Publication dateOctober 2014
LanguagesEnglish
WHO reference numberWHO/EVD/Guidance/Burials/14.2



NEWS:

W.H.O. Issues New Guidelines on Safely Burying Ebola Victims

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lunes, 3 de noviembre de 2014

COURSE: Guidance for use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) During Management of Patients with #Ebola Virus

GO TO THE COURSE
The following informational materials demonstrate the procedures described in CDC guidance for donning and doffing (i.e., putting on and removing) personal protective equipment (PPE) for all healthcare providers entering the room of a patient hospitalized with known or suspected Ebola virus disease (Ebola). These informational materials are intended to promote patient safety and increase the safety of the healthcare provider.
Prior to working with Ebola patients, all healthcare providers involved in the care of Ebola patients must receive training and demonstrate competency in performing all Ebola-related infection control practices and procedures, specifically in donning and doffing proper PPE.

REFERENCE:
Guidance for Donning and Doffing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) During Management of Patients with Ebola Virus 
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Plant-derived virus-like particles as vaccines

Virus-like particles (VLPs) are self-assembled structures derived from viral antigens that mimic the native architecture of viruses but lack the viral genome. VLPs have emerged as a premier vaccine platform due to their advantages in safety, immunogenicity, and manufacturing. The particulate nature and high-density presentation of viral structure proteins on their surface also render VLPs as attractive carriers for displaying foreign epitopes. Consequently, several VLP-based vaccines have been licensed for human use and achieved significant clinical and economical success. The major challenge, however, is to develop novel production platforms that can deliver VLP-based vaccines while significantly reducing production times and costs. Therefore, this review focuses on the essential role of plants as a novel, speedy and economical production platform for VLP-based vaccines. The advantages of plant expression systems are discussed in light of their distinctive posttranslational modifications, cost-effectiveness, production speed, and scalability. Recent achievements in the expression and assembly of VLPs and their chimeric derivatives in plant systems as well as their immunogenicity in animal models are presented. Results of human clinical trials demonstrating the safety and efficacy of plant-derived VLPs are also detailed. Moreover, the promising implications of the recent creation of "humanized" glycosylation plant lines as well as the very recent approval of the first plant-made biologics by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for plant production and commercialization of VLP-based vaccines are discussed. It is speculated that the combined potential of plant expression systems and VLP technology will lead to the emergence of successful vaccines and novel applications of VLPs in the near future.

REFERENCE:
Chen Q1, Lai H. Hum Plant-derived virus-like particles as vaccines. Vaccin Immunother. 2013 Jan;9(1):26-49.
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viernes, 31 de octubre de 2014

Happy "Día de Muertos" (Day of the Deaths)

       For our english-speaking visitors. Happy Halloween!. Here in  México is "Día de Muertos" (Day of the Deaths), on November 1st, and 2nd. This year we will be walking around deaths. momies, vampires, and Catrinas...
       Literary Calaveras (skulls)  are written as epitaphs for the living. It´s a fun  way to remember the deaths. In local newspapers publish Calaveras from living politicians, also a way to make fun of them.  Many calaveras were written about the individuals in a given profession. Butchers, teachers, priests, housekeepers, artists, mail carriers, and shopkeepers were all satirized by writers of calaveras. I´m giving you one...  People goes to the pantheons, to sing, eat, and remember their love ones. Also they dress up, cook special food and big parties. It´s a nice time to visit México.


jueves, 30 de octubre de 2014

Control of #ebola virus disease - firestone district, Liberia, 2014

WSJ
On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).

REFERENCE:
Reaves EJ, et al. Control of ebola virus disease - firestone district, Liberia, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Oct 24;63(42):959-65.
NEWS:
How Firestone Liberia’s unique approaches helped stem the spread of the ebola virus
Liberian Rubber Farm Becomes Sanctuary Against Ebola
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martes, 28 de octubre de 2014

Preguntas sobre #ébola

Las preguntas se recibirán hasta el Viernes 31 de Octubre, 2014.

El formato para las preguntas ha sido desactivado. Gracias por participar!

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