martes, 28 de julio de 2015

Emotional motivators might improve hand hygiene among healthcare workers

Campaigns that use feelings such as disgust might help to reduce healthcare associated infection better than rational campaigns that teach infection prevention, writes Layla McCay
Something about articles on hand hygiene in healthcare tempts us to turn the page. Hand hygiene: that bastion of infection control, inspiration for a thousand dog-eared posters proclaiming the critical moments, creator of chapped hands, consumer of time that could otherwise be spent with patients, general guilt inducer.
We know this. We all learnt the importance of hand hygiene back in medical or nursing school. We all sat through the mandatory training and read the hospital policies. We recognise that globally 5-15% of hospital patients acquire a healthcare associated infection during their stay.1 We have seen the studies: healthcare associated infections are being transmitted on the hands of healthcare workers all the time, whether we are measuring blood pressure,2 moving around the patient area,3or handling fluid secretions.4 We know all about hand hygiene.
REFERENCE:
http://www.bmj.com/content/351/bmj.h3968.full?ijkey=sCpSkOxEG2ot4TD&keytype=ref 

lunes, 27 de julio de 2015

Surface-Dried Viruses Can Resist Glucoprotamin-Based Disinfection

Vaccinia virus
Touching of contaminated objects and surfaces is a well-known method of virus transmission. Once they are attached to the hands, viruses can easily get adsorbed and initiate infection. Hence, disinfection of frequently touched surfaces is of major importance to prevent virus spreading. Here we studied the antiviral activity of a glucoprotamin-containing disinfectant against influenza A virus and the model virus vaccinia virus (VACV) dried on inanimate surfaces. The efficacy of the surface disinfectant on stainless steel, polyvinyl chloride, and glass coupons was investigated in a quantitative carrier test. Vacuum-dried viruses were exposed to 0.25%, 0.5%, and 1% disinfectant for 5 min, 15 min, and 30 min without agitation, and residual infectivity was determined by endpoint titration. Although glucoprotamin was highly active against both viruses in suspension, limited antiviral activity against the surface-dried viruses was detected. Even after 30 min of exposure to 1% disinfectant, VACV was not completely inactivated. Furthermore, influenza A virus inactivation was strongly affected by the surface composition during the 5-min and 15-min treatments with 0.25% and 0.5% disinfectant. The results presented in this study highlight the relevance of practical tests to assess the antiviral activity of surface disinfectants. High virucidal activity in solution is not necessarily indicative of high antiviral activity against surface-dried viruses. In addition, we want to emphasize that the mere exposure of surfaces to disinfectants might not be sufficient for virus inactivation and mechanical action should be applied to bring attached viruses into contact with virucidal compounds.

REFERENCE:
Zeitler, Benjamin, and Ingrid Rapp. “Surface-Dried Viruses Can Resist Glucoprotamin-Based Disinfection.” Ed. M. W. Griffiths. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 80.23 (2014): 7169–7175. PMC. Web. 9 July 2015.
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lunes, 20 de julio de 2015

An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments

Fungal contamination in indoor environments has been associated with adverse health effects for the inhabitants. Remediation of fungal contamination requires removal of the fungi present and modifying the indoor environment to become less favourable to growth.  This may include treatment of indoor environments with an antifungal agent to prevent future growth. However there are limited published data or advice on chemical agents suitable for indoor fungal remediation. The aim of this study was to assess the relative efficacies of five commercially available cleaning agents with published or anecdotal use for indoor fungal remediation. The five agents included two common multi-purpose industrial disinfectants (Cavicide® and Virkon®), 70% ethanol, vinegar (4.0%−4.2% acetic acid), and a plant-derived compound (tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil) tested in both a liquid and vapour form. Tea tree oil has recently generated interest for its antimicrobial efficacy in clinical settings, but has not been widely employed for fungal remediation. Each antifungal agent was assessed for fungal growth inhibition using a disc diffusion method against a representative species from two common fungal genera, (Aspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum), which were isolated from air samples and are commonly found in indoor air. Tea tree oil demonstrated the greatest inhibitory effect on the growth of both fungi, applied in either a liquid or vapour form. Cavicide® and Virkon® demonstrated similar, although less, growth inhibition of both genera. Vinegar (4.0%–4.2% acetic acid) was found to only inhibit the growth of P. chrysogenum, while 70% ethanol was found to have no inhibitory effect on the growth of either fungi. There was a notable inhibition in sporulation, distinct from growth inhibition after exposure to tea tree oil, Virkon®, Cavicide® and vinegar. Results demonstrate that common cleaning and antifungal agents differ in their capacity to inhibit the growth of fungal genera found in the indoor air environment. The results indicate that tea tree oil was the most effective antifungal agent tested, and may have industrial application for the remediation of fungal contamination in residential and occupational buildings.

Keywords: Airborne fungi, indoor air quality (IAQ), vinegar, tea tree oil, inhibition zone

REFERENCE:
Rogawansamy, Senthaamarai et al. “An Evaluation of Antifungal Agents for the Treatment of Fungal Contamination in Indoor Air Environments.” Ed. William A. Toscano and Paul B. Tchounwou. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12.6 (2015): 6319–6332. PMC. Web. 9 July 2015.
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jueves, 16 de julio de 2015

Revista Mexicana de Bioseguridad

LA ASOCIACIÓN MEXICANA DE BIOSEGURIDAD A.C.convoca a participar en la:
REVISTA MEXICANA DE BIOSEGURIDAD

Participa con artículos para la difusión digital en nuestra revista sobre los temas relevantes sobre bioseguridad en México, compartiendo sus reflexiones, experiencias y resultados de investigación.
¡ CONOCE NUESTRA REVISTA AQUI !

Mínimo de 3,500 y máximo de 10,000 caracteres (contados sin considerar espacios con la herramienta “número de palabras” en Word).

Tipo de letra: Arial.
Referencias: Para agregar referencias al texto, favor de utilizar el formato de la revista PLOS One.   (http://www.plosone.org/static/guidelines#references)
Adjuntar una o dos fotografías DE SU AUTORÍA (QUE NO SEAN TOMADAS DEL INTERNET) ilustrativas del tema, en buena definición (8megapixeles o superior), con el respectivo texto explicativo que se pondrá al final del artículo.
Adjuntar una fotografía personal reciente con encuadre que abarque de busto a cabeza (medium shot) y un resumen de su Curriculum Vitae.

Enviar el o los textos que propones para publicar, al correo electrónico

revistamexicana(arroba)amexbio.org

Los textos propuestos para publicar serán revisados a la luz de los criterios de publicación.  La determinación de la comisión revisora será comunicada al autor.

ENVÍA ​YA ​TU PARTICIPACIÓN

​Consejo Directivo AMexBio

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lunes, 13 de julio de 2015

Review and Phylogenetic Analysis of qac Genes That Reduce Susceptibility to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Staphylococcus Species

The qac genes of Staphylococcus species encode multidrug efflux pumps: membrane proteins that export toxic molecules and thus increase tolerance to a variety of compounds such as disinfecting agents, including quaternary ammonium compounds (for which they are named), intercalating dyes and some antibiotics. In Stapylococcus species, six different plasmid-encoded Qac efflux pumps have been described, and they belong to two major protein families. QacA and QacB are members of the Major Facilitator Superfamily, while QacC, QacG, QacH, and QacJ all belong to the Small Multidrug Resistance (SMR) family. Not all SMR proteins are called Qac and the reverse is also true, which has caused confusion in the literature and in gene annotations. The discovery of qac genes and their presence in various staphylococcal populations is briefly reviewed. A sequence comparison revealed that some of the PCR primers described in the literature for qac detection may miss particular qac genes due to lack of DNA conservation. Despite their resemblance in substrate specificity, the Qac proteins belonging to the two protein families have little in common. QacA and QacB are highly conserved in Staphylococcus species, while qacA was also detected in Enterococcus faecalis, suggesting that these plasmid-born genes have spread across bacterial genera. Nevertheless, these qacA and qacB genes are quite dissimilar to their closest homologues in other organisms. In contrast, SMR-type Qac proteins display considerable sequence variation, despite their short length, even within the Staphylococcus genus. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes identified similarity to a large number of other SMR members, found in staphylococci as well as in other genera. A number of phylogenetic trees of SMR Qac proteins are presented here, starting with genes present in S. aureus and S. epidermidis, and extending this to related genes found in other species of this genus, and finally to genes found in other genera.
Keywords: biocide resistance, MFS, MRSA, phylogeny, qac, S. aureus, smr

REFERENCE:
Wassenaar, Trudy M. et al. “Review and Phylogenetic Analysis of qac Genes That Reduce Susceptibility to Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Staphylococcus Species.” European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology 5.1 (2015): 44–61. PMC. Web. 30 June 2015.
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jueves, 9 de julio de 2015

Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research

Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise.

Keywords: cell culture, mycoplasma contamination, Human Tissue Act, cell line, cell line misidentification, cryostorage, Human Tissue Authority, STR profiling, human tissue, Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act

REFERENCE:
Geraghty, R J et al. “Guidelines for the Use of Cell Lines in Biomedical Research.” British Journal of Cancer 111.6 (2014): 1021–1046. PMC. Web. 9 July 2015.
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jueves, 2 de julio de 2015

The race against time (two #ebola vaccines)

The first time Dr Ripley Ballou, Vice President of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) Biologicals, contacted the World Health Organization (WHO) about a promising Ebola vaccine candidate, it was 24 March 2014 – the day WHO issued news of the Ebola virus disease outbreak in Guinea.
“I was told that since there were no human data, there were no policies or pathways for its use in the current outbreak,” Ballou recalls. ”There was also a strong belief that the usual approach of containments would stop the outbreak.”
When WHO called Ballou a few months later the picture had changed, and on 8 August WHO declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern.
“We realized this outbreak was different and the approach used successfully in previous outbreaks – detecting and isolating cases, identifying contacts and safely burying the deceased – was not working,” says Dr Marie-Paule Kieny, WHO Assistant Director-General for Health Systems and Innovation.
Within a month, Kieny and her team hosted a gathering of more than 200 of the world’s leading vaccine experts from industry, academia and regulatory authorities as well as public health officials from the countries affected and experts in filoviruses and viral haemorrhagic diseases.
REFERENCE:
The Race against Time.”
Bulletin of the World Health Organization 93.1 (2015): 7–8. PMC. Web. 24 June 2015.
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lunes, 29 de junio de 2015

Biocontainment of genetically modified organisms by synthetic protein design

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly deployed at large scales and in open environments. Genetic biocontainment strategies are needed to prevent unintended proliferation of GMOs in natural ecosystems. Existing biocontainment methods are insufficient either because they impose evolutionary pressure on the organism to eject the safeguard, because they can be circumvented by environmentally available compounds, or because they can be overcome by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we computationally redesign essential enzymes in the first organism possessing an altered genetic code to confer metabolic dependence on nonstandard amino acids for survival. The resulting GMOs cannot metabolically circumvent their biocontainment mechanisms using environmentally available compounds, and they exhibit unprecedented resistance to evolutionary escape via mutagenesis and HGT. This work provides a foundation for safer GMOs that are isolated from natural ecosystems by reliance on synthetic metabolites.

REFERENCE:
Mandell, Daniel J. et al. “Biocontainment of Genetically Modified Organisms by Synthetic Protein Design.” Nature 518.7537 (2015): 55–60. PMC. Web. 24 June 2015.
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viernes, 26 de junio de 2015

Online Resources for Understanding Outbreaks and Infectious Diseases

Disease outbreaks are hot topics that often receive extensive national and international news coverage, although this coverage may not always be accurate. Engaging students with these current events can be a powerful way to teach about science and health. Accurate disease information is also an important public health issue, as misinformation can lead to fear and poor policy decisions. In this review, we highlight online resources for teaching about outbreaks and infectious diseases that will be useful for scientists and educators working with middle school, high school, and undergraduate students. We particularly focus on current news about infectious diseases, epidemiology, pathogen biology, and vaccines.
Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microbes, including viruses, bacteria, and parasites. Some diseases, such as the flu, spread from human to human, while others rely on a vector intermediate—for example, malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes. Outbreaks, or epidemics, are characterized by the rapid spread of disease in a population. An outbreak that becomes global is referred to as a pandemic. In 2009, the global spread of H1N1 “swine” flu was a pandemic, whereas the outbreak of Ebola that began in 2014 is an epidemic in West Africa, not a pandemic.
REFERENCE:
Barber, Nicola C., and Louisa A. Stark. “Online Resources for Understanding Outbreaks 
and Infectious Diseases.” CBE Life Sciences Education 14.1 (2015): fe1. PMC. Web. 24 June 2015.
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jueves, 25 de junio de 2015

Convocatoria para el conformar el Consejo Consultivo Científico de Sanidad Vegetal, Biología Molecular de Animales y Biotecnología en Alimentos

Por considerar que pudiera ser de su interés, les informo que se encuentra abierta la Convocatoria 2015 para formar parte del Consejo Consultivo Científico en las disciplinas de Sanidad Vegetal, Biología Molecular de Animales y Biotecnología en Alimentos hasta el  31 de julio de 2015.  Para mayor información, los invito a consultar las bases en nuestra página electrónica: CONACYT
Asimismo, agradeceremos su valioso apoyo para distribuir esta información entre aquellas personas que consideren pudieran estar interesadas y estimen pertinente.
Saludos cordiales,
Dra. Natalhie Campos 
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