Developing Global Standards for Human Genome Editing, WHO

WHO is establishing a global multi-disciplinary expert panel to examine the scientific, ethical, social and legal challenges associated with human genome editing (both somatic and germ cell). The panel will review the current literature on the state of the research and its applications, and societal attitudes towards the different uses of this technology. WHO will then receive advice from the panel on appropriate oversight and governance mechanisms, both at the national and global level. Core to this work will be understanding how to promote transparency and trustworthy practices and how to ensure appropriate risk/benefit assessments are performed prior to any decision on authorization.
The recent application of tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 to edit the human genome have highlighted the need for the development of standards in this area. WHO’s expert working group will work in a consultative manner and build on existing initiatives. As WHO proceeds, we are liaising with relevant UN and other international agencies, and are in communication with Academies of Science and Medicine as well as with bodies that have produced previous reports.
REFERENCE:
First report of the Advisory Committee on Developing Global Standards for Governance and Oversight of Human Genome Editing (18-19 March 2019, Geneva) pdf, 251kb. REPORT OF THE FIRST MEETING. WHO.

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VIDEO: Sean Kaufman los invita al #SIBB19, en Guanajuato.

Sean Kaufman los invita al XI Simposio Internacional de Bioseguridad y Biocustodia 2019 (#SIBB19), en Guanajuato.



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#Biosafety Considerations for Plants Developed by New Genetic Modification Techniques


The question whether new genetic modification techniques (nGM) in plant development might result in non-negligible negative effects for the environment and/or health is significant for the discussion concerning their regulation. However, current knowledge to address this issue is limited for most nGMs, particularly for recently developed nGMs, like genome editing, and their newly emerging variations, e.g., base editing. This leads to uncertainties regarding the risk/safety-status of plants which are developed with a broad range of different nGMs, especially genome editing, and other nGMs such as cisgenesis, transgrafting, haploid induction or reverse breeding. A literature survey was conducted to identify plants developed by nGMs which are relevant for future agricultural use. Such nGM plants were analyzed for hazards associated either (i) with their developed traits and their use or (ii) with unintended changes resulting from the nGMs or other methods applied during breeding. Several traits are likely to become particularly relevant in the future for nGM plants, namely herbicide resistance (HR), resistance to different plant pathogens as well as modified composition, morphology, fitness (e.g., increased resistance to cold/frost, drought, or salinity) or modified reproductive characteristics. Some traits such as resistance to certain herbicides are already known from existing GM crops and their previous assessments identified issues of concern and/or risks, such as the development of herbicide resistant weeds. Other traits in nGM plants are novel; meaning they are not present in agricultural plants currently cultivated with a history of safe use, and their underlying physiological mechanisms are not yet sufficiently elucidated. Characteristics of some genome editing applications, e.g., the small extent of genomic sequence change and their higher targeting efficiency, i.e., precision, cannot be considered an indication of safety per se, especially in relation to novel traits created by such modifications. All nGMs considered here can result in unintended changes of different types and frequencies. However, the rapid development of nGM plants can compromise the detection and elimination of unintended effects. Thus, a case-specific premarket risk assessment should be conducted for nGM plants, including an appropriate molecular characterization to identify unintended changes and/or confirm the absence of unwanted transgenic sequences.
REFERENCE:
Eckerstorfer, Michael F et al. “An EU Perspective on Biosafety Considerations for Plants Developed by Genome Editing and Other New Genetic Modification Techniques (nGMs).” Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology vol. 7 31. 5 Mar. 2019, doi:10.3389/fbioe.2019.00031

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Guía para el control de infecciones asociadas a la atención a la salud

Escrita por expertos internacionales en los campos de control de infecciones y epidemiología hospitalaria, la Guía para el Control de Infecciones Asociadas a la Atención en Saludde ISID reúne los principios e intervenciones más recientes que permitirán reducir la tasa de infección y el impacto de las consecuencias asociadas con ella para los pacientes, sus familias y los sistemas de salud, que incluyen: hospitalizaciones más largas; discapacidad a largo plazo; aumento de la resistencia antimicrobiana; mayores costos financieros y muertes innecesarias.

A medida que aumenta la importancia del campo de la prevención de infecciones y la ciencia que lo respalda continúa evolucionando, los objetivos de esta Guía son facilitar la implementación de medidas efectivas de prevención y control en los diferentes niveles de recursos para mejorar la calidad de la atención de salud, minimizar el riesgo, salvar vidas, reducir costos y limitar el uso de antibióticos para combatir estas infecciones a menudo prevenibles en todo el mundo.

La Guía está dividida en cuatro partes. Haga clic en cada capítulo para acceder a su contenido:

1. PREVENCIÓN DE INFECCIONES EN EL AMBIENTE HOSPITALARIO

Agua del hospital

Aislamiento de enfermedades transmisibles

Alimentos: Consideraciones para el control de infecciones hospitalarias

Áreas de laboratorio

Áreas de pacientes y limpieza ambiental

Atuendo del personal de atención médica en entornos no quirúrgicos

Control de infecciones en obstetricia

Departamento de urgencias y áreas de recepción

Desinfección en el entorno hospitalario

Desviación positiva en la prevención de infecciones

Estrategias horizontales y verticales de control de infecciones

La farmacia

Gestión de residuos

Higiene de manos

Monitoreo de la higiene de las manos

Nuevas tecnologías para la prevención de infecciones

Paquetes para la prevención de infecciones y prácticas seguras

Preparación del paciente para la cirugía

Problemas de organización y registro, incluyendo epidemias

El quirófano

Reutilización de dispositivos desechables

El trabajador de la salud como fuente de transmisión


2. RESISTENCIA A LOS ANTIMICROBIANOS Y OPTIMIZACIÓN DE SU USO

Optimización de antimicrobianos en el entorno hospitalario

Papel del laboratorio de microbiología en el control de infecciones

Resistencia a los antibióticos


3. INFECCIONES ADQUIRIDAS EN EL HOSPITAL

4. PATÓGENOS DE RELEVANCIA EPIDEMIOLÓGICA 

Difteria, tétanos y tos ferina

Enterobacterias resistentes a carbapenem

Patógenos entéricos bacterianos: Clostridium difficile, Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli y otros

Sarampión

Tuberculosis





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#LIBRO: La Edición del Genoma Humano (INGLÉS)

Publication Info

328 pages | 6 x 9 
ISBNs: 

  • Paperback: 978-0-309-45288-5
  • Ebook: 978-0-309-45291-5
DOI: https://doi.org/10.17226/24623 
La edición del genoma es una nueva herramienta poderosa para realizar alteraciones precisas en el material genético de un organismo. Los recientes avances científicos han hecho que la edición del genoma sea más eficiente, precisa y flexible que nunca. Estos avances han provocado una explosión de interés en todo el mundo sobre las posibles formas en que la edición del genoma puede mejorar la salud humana. La velocidad a la que se están desarrollando y aplicando estas tecnologías ha llevado a muchos formuladores de políticas y partes interesadas a expresar su preocupación sobre si existen sistemas apropiados para gobernar estas tecnologías y cómo y cuándo el público debe participar en estas decisiones.
La Edición del Genoma Humano considera preguntas importantes sobre la aplicación humana de la edición del genoma, que incluyen: equilibrar los beneficios potenciales con riesgos no intencionados, gobernar el uso de la edición del genoma, incorporar los valores sociales en las aplicaciones clínicas y las decisiones políticas, y respetar las diferencias inevitables entre naciones y culturas que moldear cómo y si usar estas nuevas tecnologías. Este informe propone criterios para la edición de líneas germinales heredables, proporciona conclusiones sobre la necesidad crucial de educación pública y participación, y presenta 7 principios generales para la gobernanza de la edición del genoma humano.

REFERENCE:
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Human Genome Editing: Science, Ethics, and Governance. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24623.

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Gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9: implications for dual-use and biosecurity

We have read with interest the recent paper by Kang, et al (2017), addressing clinical and ethical issues related to the safe and responsible use of CRISPR/Cas. The authors provide a number of important considerations about the current capabilities offered by this novel gene-editing tool, including germ line editing in embryos, and potential diverse uses in adult human applications. The authors posit that the tool in of itself does not represent a threat, and that periodic assessment will ensure its responsible use. We agree, but with caveat: namely, that any tool that imparts great capability also involves at least some risk, if not threat, that the power conferred by such capacity can be used to leverage or evoke a variety of ends. This deviation of intent is a principal concern of dual-use research and its applications.
REFERENCE:
DiEuliis, Diane, and James Giordano. Gene editing using CRISPR/Cas9: implications for dual-use and biosecurity. Protein & cell vol. 9,3 (2018): 239-240. doi:10.1007/s13238-017-0493-4

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Arthropod Containment Guidelines, Version 3.2

The Arthropod Containment Guidelines are a product of the work of the American Committee of Medical Entomology, a subcommittee of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. The guidelines provide a reference for research laboratories to assess risk and establish protocols for the safe handling of arthropod vectors of human and animal disease agents. The guidelines were originally published in 2004 and have been updated here to reflect the spectrum of vector taxa under investigation, and the demands of working with vector arthropods in the context of the Select Agent Rule.
REFERENCIA:
American Committee Of Medical Entomology American Society Of Tropical Medicine And Hygiene. Arthropod Containment Guidelines, Version 3.2. Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.) vol. 19,3 (2019): 152-173. doi:10.1089/vbz.2018.2431

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#CIENInarios Conferencia: "LOS CONFLICTOS DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD".


#CIENInarios Conferencia de Bioseguridad: "LOS CONFLICTOS DE LA RESPONSABILIDAD". Sean G. Kaufman. 10 a 12 hrs. Viernes Agosto 30, 2019. Auditorio Dr. Fernando Rébora Gutiérrez. Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Calzada de Tlalpan 4502, Col. Sección XVI, Tlalpan, CDMX. 14080.

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An unusual case of bovine anthrax in the canton of Jura, Switzerland in 2017

Background: Anthrax caused by Bacillus anthracis is a zoonotic disease mainly affecting herbivores. The last Swiss outbreak was over 20 years ago. We describe a recent anthrax outbreak involving two cows from the same herd. One cow was designated as a peracute clinical case with sudden death and typical lung lesions, while the other cow presented with protracted fever and abortion.
Case presentation: On April 29th 2017, a 3.5-year-old Montbéliard dairy cow was found dead while out at pasture with haemorrhage from the nose. The veterinarian suspected pneumonia and performed a necropsy on site. Subsequently, a lung and liver sample were sent to the laboratory. Unexpectedly, Bacillus anthracis was isolated, a pathogen not found in Switzerland for decades. Several days later, a second cow from the same farm showed signs of abortion after protracted fever. Since these symptoms are not typical for anthrax, and the bacteria could not be demonstrated in blood samples from this animal, a necropsy was performed under appropriate biosafety measures. Subsequently, Bacillus anthracis could be isolated from the placenta and the sublumbal lymph nodes but not from the blood, liver, spleen and kidney. The outbreak strain (17OD930) was shown to belong to the lineage B.Br.CNEVA, the same as Swiss strains from previous outbreaks in the region. We speculate that the disease came from a temporarily opened cave system that is connected to an old carcass burial site and was flushed by heavy rainfall preceding the outbreak.
Conclusion: Even in countries like Switzerland, where anthrax is very rare, new cases can occur after unusual weather conditions or ground disturbance. It is important for public officials to be aware of this risk to avoid possible spread.
REFERENCE: Gobeli Brawand S, et al. An unusual case of bovine anthrax in the canton of Jura, Switzerland in 2017. BMC Vet Res. 2019 Jul 29;15(1):265. doi: 10.1186/s12917-019-1996-4. PubMed PMID:
31357988.

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El plástico nuevo afecta el crecimiento de las pulgas de agua

Los materiales plásticos de laboratorio afectan los parámetros vitales de la pulga de agua Daphnia magna. El principal factor responsable se define como "novedad (nuevo)" de los materiales. D. magna juvenil fueron criados individualmente en; a) tubos nuevos de polipropileno de 50 ml estándar de laboratorio, y; b) tubos idénticos que habían sido lavados y aireados durante varias semanas. La novedad tuvo efectos significativos sobre el crecimiento y la fecundidad de D. magna. Los tubos nuevos causaron una maduración tardía, una reproducción reducida y un crecimiento reducido en comparación con los tubos lavados y reutilizados de la misma marca comercial. Los resultados indican que la novedad de los tubos tiene efectos inhibidores o tóxicos sobre D. magna. A menudo, los plásticos de laboratorio están destinados a un solo uso debido a las demandas de esterilidad. La novedad puede ser un factor de confusión importante en los resultados de la investigación y no debe ser ignorada. Los utensilios de plástico desechables pueden tener un costo aparentemente ignorado e inducir efectos adversos en organismos y sistemas de pruebas biológicas. Los hallazgos presentados acentúan la necesidad continua de una conciencia general sobre los factores de confusión derivados del entorno del laboratorio material. Según los hallazgos actuales, los autores sugieren que los plásticos destinados a ser utilizados en investigaciones sensibles pueden necesitar ser lavados y aireados antes de su uso.
REFERENCIAS:
Cuhra, Marek et al. In plastico: laboratory material newness affects growth and reproduction of Daphnia magna reared in 50-ml polypropylene tubes. Scientific reports vol. 7 46442. 20 Apr. 2017, doi:10.1038/srep46442
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Effects of tyrosol and farnesol on Candida albicans biofilm

The present in vitro study examined the effects of the quorum-sensing molecules farnesol and tyrosol on the development of Candida albicans biofilm in order to elucidate their role as novel adjuvants in oral hygiene. The investigation was conducted in C. albicans ATCC 10231 and C. albicans isolates from dentures and was performed in flat-bottomed 96-well polystyrene plates. Yeast growth and their capacity to form biofilms were evaluated following 24 and 48 h incubations at 37°C in Sabouraud broth supplemented with 0.001–3 mM farnesol and/or 1–20 mM tyrosol. Yeast growth was assessed by turbidimetry and biofilms were quantitated by crystal violet staining, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The viability of the fungal cells was controlled by the culture of planktonic cells and by examination of the biofilms using fluorescence microscopy following staining with fluorescein diacetate and ethidium bromide. Farnesol at 3 mM exerted a stronger action when added at the beginning of biofilm formation (>50% inhibition) than when added to preformed biofilms (<10% inhibition). Similarly, tyrosol at 20 mM had a greater effect on biofilm formation (>80% inhibition) than on preformed biofilms (<40% inhibition). Despite significant reductions in attached biomass, yeast growth varied little in the presence of the investigated molecules, as corroborated by the turbidimetry, culture of supernatants on solid culture medium followed by counting of colony-forming units and viability tests using fluorescence microscopy. At the highest tested concentration, the molecules had a greater effect during the initial phases of biofilm formation. The effect of farnesol during anaerobiosis was not significantly different from that observed during aerobiosis, unlike that of tyrosol during anaerobiosis, which exhibited slightly reduced yeast biofilm inhibition. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the specific anti-biofilm effect, independent of fungicidal or fungistatic action, of farnesol and tyrosol, as tested in C. albicans ATCC 10231 and 6 strains isolated from dentures. Prior to suggesting the use of these molecules for preventive purposes in oral hygiene, further studies are required in order to clarify the metabolic pathways and cellular mechanisms involved in their antibiofilm effect, as well as the repercussions on the oral microbiome.
REFERENCE:
Sebaa, Sarra et al. Effects of tyrosol and farnesol on Candida albicans biofilm. Molecular medicine reports vol. 19,4 (2019): 3201-3209. doi:10.3892/mmr.2019.9981

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Cobertura de vacunación en niños menores de siete años en México

Objetivo. Evaluar la cobertura de vacunación en menores de siete años. Material y métodos. Estudio basado en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición de Medio Camino 2016. Resultados. La cobertura de esquema completo en los niños menores de un año fue de 51.7% [rango: de 67.6%, para la vacuna pentavalente (PV), a 93.9%, para la vacuna Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG, tuberculosis)]; en los de 12-23 meses fue de 53.9% [rango: de 68.5%, para la vacuna triple viral (SRP, sarampión, rubeola y parotiditis), a 98.3%, para la BCG], y en los de 24-35 meses, de 63.2% [rango: de 85.3%, para la vacuna contra neumococo, a 98.6%, para la BCG]. En niños de seis años, la cobertura de una dosis de SRP fue de 97.8%, y para dos dosis, de 50.7%. Sólo 2.2% de los niños de seis años no estaban vacunados. Las variables asociadas con esquema incompleto fueron edad de 2-5 meses, madre menor de 20 años o hablante de lengua indígena. Conclusiones. Debe mejorarse el reclutamiento de recién nacidos al programa de vacunación, así como su seguimiento, hasta completar el esquema, aprovechando los contactos con los servicios de salud para vacunarlos.
VACUNAS:
  • Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG): tuberculosis.
  • Pentavalente (PV): difteria, tosferina, tétanos, poliomielitis y Haemophilus Influenzae tipo b. 
  • Triple viral (SRP, MMR1): sarampión, rubeola y parotiditis.
  • HB: vacuna contra la hepatitis B
  • Pnm: vacuna conjugada de neumococo
  • RV: vacuna contra rotavirus
  • DPT: vacuna triple bacteriana: difteria, pertussis, tétanos.
REFERENCIA:



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Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Measles virus

Measles virus is a negative-sense, single stranded RNA virus, which belongs to morbillivirus genus in the Paramyxoviridae family. It consists of a helical nucleocapsid, 100-300 nm in diameter, surrounded by an envelope. The envelope is lined by matrix proteins and carries transmenbrane hemaglutinin and fusion glycoproteins which are the virulence factors.
Before vaccine introduction in 1963 in United States, 130 million cases and 7-8 million deaths were estimated to be due to measles and 95-98% of children were infected. Endemic in metropolitan centers, measles became epidemic every 2-3 years primarily in late winter and early spring and spread by waves to smaller cities and rural area, where it was more severe. Mortality declined in the first half of twentieth century due to life quality improvement. In the 1960’s, vaccine introduction allowed substantial reduction of both incidence and mortality due to measles. Resurgence of disease in 1989-1991 was due to low vaccination coverage amongst certain populations in industrialized countries. Measles is considered eliminated in the Americas and Europe, however occasional outbreaks occur due to imported cases and unvaccinated populations. Measles is still a common disease in developing countries.
REFERENCE:
Pathogen Safety Data Sheets: Infectious Substances – Measles virus


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LIBRO: Pablo tiene #sarampión

Pablo está enfermo, tiene sarampión. No podrá volver a la escuela ni salir a jugar hasta que sus células aprendan a defenderlo del virus que lo enfermó. Pero, qué es un virus? cómo se contagia y por qué son importantes las vacunas?

Puede descargarse en:
https://redvirologia.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Pablopagina.pdf

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Guía práctica de eliminación del sarampión

 
El sarampión es una de las principales causas de muerte entre los niños pequeños, a pesar de que hay una vacuna segura y eficaz para prevenirlo. En 2016, hubo 89,780 muertes por sarampión en todo el mundo. La vacunación contra el sarampión redujo la mortalidad mundial en un 84% entre 2000 y 2016. En 2016, aproximadamente un 85% de la población infantil mundial recibió a través de los servicios de salud habituales una dosis de vacuna contra el sarampión antes de cumplir un año de vida. En 2000, ese porcentaje fue del 72%. Se estima que entre 2000 y 2016, la vacuna contra el sarampión evitó unos 20,4 millones de muertes, lo que la convierte en una de las mejores inversiones en salud pública. Una vez que se adquiere la infección, no existe ningún tratamiento antiviral específico contra el virus del sarampión.
El virus del sarampión es muy contagioso y se propaga por la tos y los estornudos, el contacto personal íntimo o el contacto directo con secreciones nasales o faríngeas infectadas. El virus presente en el aire o sobre superficies infectadas es activo y contagioso hasta 2 horas, y puede ser transmitido por un individuo infectado desde 4 días antes hasta 4 días después de la aparición del exantema.
Caso confirmado de sarampión:

  • Confirmado como sarampión o rubéola por prueba inmunoenzimática disponible en el comercio (EIA) para detectar la presencia de anticuerpos IgM específicos contra sarampión 
  • Confirmado mediante el aislamiento del virus del sarampión y/o
  • Vinculado epidemiológicamente a otro caso confirmado por laboratorio (se establecerá el vínculo epidemiológico sí ocurrió cualquier contacto entre el caso sospechoso y el caso confirmado por laboratorio en cualquier momento durante el mes anterior a la aparición de la erupción cutánea).

FUENTE:

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High risk for latent tuberculosis infection among medical residents and nursing students in India

Defining occupational latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) risk among healthcare workers is needed to support implementation of prevention guidelines. Prospective cohort study of 200 medical residents and nursing students in India was conducted May 2016—December 2017. Tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON TB Gold Test-in-tube (QFT-GIT) were performed at study entry and 12 months. Primary outcome was incident LTBI (≥10mm TST induration and/or ≥0.35IU/mL QFT-GIT) at 12 months; secondary outcomes included baseline LTBI prevalence and risk factors for incident and prevalent LTBI using Poisson regression. Among 200, [90 nursing students and 110 medical residents], LTBI prevalence was 30% (95% CI, 24–37); LTBI incidence was 26.8 (95% CI, 18.6–37.2) cases per 100 person-years and differed by testing method (28.7 [95% CI, 20.6–38.9] vs 17.4 [95% CI, 11.5–25.4] cases per 100 person-years using TST and QFT-GIT, respectively). Medical residents had two-fold greater risk of incident LTBI than nursing students (Relative Risk, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.05–4.42). During study period 6 (3%) HCWs were diagnosed with active TB disease. Overall, median number of self-reported TB exposures was 5 (Interquartile Range, 1–15). Of 60 participants with prevalent and incident LTBI who were offered free isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), only 2 participants initiated and completed IPT. High risk for LTBI was noted among medical residents compared to nursing students. Self-reported TB exposure is underreported, and uptake of LTBI prevention therapy remains low. New approaches are needed to identify HCWs at highest risk for LTBI.
REFERENCE: Kinikar, Aarti et al. High risk for latent tuberculosis infection among medical residents and nursing students in India. PloS one vol. 14,7 e0219131. 8 Jul. 2019, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0219131

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Optical microscopic study of surface morphology and filtering efficiency of face masks

Background: Low-cost face masks made from different cloth materials are very common in developing countries. The cloth masks (CM) are usually double layered with stretchable ear loops. It is common practice to use such masks for months after multiple washing and drying cycles. If a CM is used for long time, the ear loops become stretched. The loop needs to be knotted to make the mask loop fit better on the face. It is not clear how washing and drying and stretching practices change the quality of a CM. The particulate matter (PM) filtering efficiency of a mask depends on multiple parameters, such as pore size, shape, clearance, and pore number density. It is important to understand the effect of these parameters on the filtering efficiency.
Methods: We characterized the surface of twenty different types of CMs using optical image analysis method. The filtering efficiency of selected cloth face masks was measured using the particle counting method. We also studied the effects of washing and drying and stretching on the quality of a mask.
Results: The pore size of masks ranged from 80 to 500 μm, which was much bigger than particular matter having diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) and 10 μm or less (PM10) size. The PM10 filtering efficiency of four of the selected masks ranged from 63% to 84%. The poor filtering efficiency may have arisen from larger and open pores present in the masks. Interestingly, we found that efficiency dropped by 20% after the 4th washing and drying cycle. We observed a change in pore size and shape and a decrease in microfibers within the pores after washing. Stretching of CM surface also altered the pore size and potentially decreased the filtering efficiency. As compared to CMs, the less frequently used surgical/paper masks had complicated networks of fibers and much smaller pores in multiple layers in comparison to CMs, and therefore had better filtering efficiency. This study showed that the filtering efficiency of cloth face masks were relatively lower, and washing and drying practices deteriorated the efficiency. We believe that the findings of this study will be very helpful for increasing public awareness and help governmental agencies to make proper guidelines and policies for use of face mask.
REFERENCIA: Neupane, Bhanu Bhakta et al. Optical microscopic study of surface morphology and filtering efficiency of face masks. PeerJ vol. 7 e7142. 26 Jun. 2019, doi:10.7717/peerj.7142

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Síndrome de la rana hervida: Ebola en RDC, un año después

El brote de la enfermedad por el virus del Ébola en la República Democrática del Congo (RDC), de la cual la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) fue notificada por primera vez el 1 de agosto de 2018, ahora se acerca al primer aniversario de su detección inicial. En la cuarta reunión del Comité de Emergencia de la OMS con respecto a esta epidemia el 17 de julio, el Director General de la OMS, por recomendación del Comité, declaró una Emergencia de Salud Pública de Preocupación Internacional (PHEIC). ¿Cuáles fueron las condiciones que llevaron al Comité a recomendar la declaración en este punto, después de que 3 reuniones anteriores no lograron el mismo resultado a pesar de las múltiples llamadas para tal anuncio? (Nuzzo e Inglesby, 2018; Klain y Lucey, 2019) Y ahora que se ha declarado, ¿cuáles son los mejores enfoques para responder?

REFERENCIA:
McLellan S, et al. Ebola in the DRC one year later - Boiling the frog? Int J Infect Dis. 2019 Jul 19;85:212-213.

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