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lunes, 30 de enero de 2017

Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

REFERENCE:
Quan, Fu-Shi et al. “Universal and Reusable Virus Deactivation System for Respiratory Protection.” Scientific Reports 7 (2017): 39956. PMC. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.

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lunes, 23 de enero de 2017

How to improve influenza vaccine coverage of healthcare personnel

Influenza causes substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide each year. Healthcare-associated influenza is a frequent event. Health care personnel (HCP) may be the source for infecting patients and may propagate nosocomial outbreaks. All HCP should receive a dose of influenza vaccine each year to protect themselves and others. This commentary will discuss the study recently published in the IJHPR by Nutman and Yoeli which assessed the beliefs and attitudes of HCP in an Israel hospital regarding influenza and the influenza vaccine. Unfortunately, as noted by Nutman and Yoeli in this issue many HCP in Israel choose not to receive influenza immunization and many harbor misconceptions regarding their risk for influenza as well as the benefits of influenza vaccine. We also discuss proven methods to increase acceptance by HCP for receiving an annual influenza vaccine.

REFERENCE:
Weber, David J., Orenstein W, and Rutala WA. “How to Improve Influenza Vaccine Coverage of Healthcare Personnel.” Israel Journal of Health Policy Research 5 (2016): 61. PMC. Web. 8 Jan. 2017.

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jueves, 19 de enero de 2017

Occupational HIV infection in a research laboratory

A lab-worker was infected with HIV-1 in a biosafety level-2 of containment, without any apparent breach. Through full-genome sequencing and phylogenetic analyses, we could identify the source of infection in a replication-competent clone, unknowingly contaminating a safe experiment. Mode of transmission remains unclear. Caution is warranted when handling HIV-derived constructs.

REFERENCE:
Soria A, Alteri C, Scarlatti G, et al. Occupational HIV infection in a research laboratory with unknown mode of transmission: a case report. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Dec 28.
(ACCESO SOLO CON SUBSCRIPCIÓN)
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miércoles, 18 de enero de 2017

Entra en vigor la prohibición de la #FDA de usar guantes con talco

A partir de hoy, Enero 18 de 2017, entra en vigor la prohibición del uso de guantes con talco, tanto en instalaciones de atención a la salud como en áreas veterinarias, en virtud de que plantean peligros para la salud humana. El talco utilizado en todos los tipos de guantes se ha relacionado con muchos efectos adversos potencialmente graves, como inflamación grave de las vías respiratorias, reacciones de hipersensibilidad, reacciones alérgicas (incluida el asma), inflamación y daño pulmonar, granuloma y adherencias peritoneales. Las reacciones alérgicas respiratorias también pueden deberse a proteínas en el talco de guantes pulverizado, señala la FDA.
De acuerdo con el organismo oficial, se cuenta con alternativas sin talco para guantes, tanto de cirujanos como para la exploración de pacientes, y proporcionan protección similar, destreza y desempeño, pero sin ninguno de los riesgos asociados a los guantes con talco. "Por consiguiente, una transición a las alternativas disponibles en el comercio no debiera ir en detrimento de la salud pública". Las alternativas a este tipo de guantes, son el uso de guantes SIN TALCO. La prohibición incluye la fabricación, distribución, venta y uso de guantes con talco como producto final, por lo que es de esperarse que los fabricantes de Estados Unidos dejen de distribuir a otros países.
Con información de Medscape y FDA.gov

REFERENCIAS:

  1. FDA: Banned Devices; Ban Powdered Surgeon’s Gloves,Powdered Patient Examination Gloves, andAbsorbable Powder for Lubricating a Surgeon’sGlove
  2. FDA Ban on Powdered Medical Gloves Applies to Veterinary Use
  3. Decisión final: La FDA prohíbe los guantes con talco en las intervenciones quirúrgicas y en la práctica clínica
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martes, 17 de enero de 2017

#Zika virus in asymptomatic blood donors in Martinique

Many aspects of Zika fever natural history remain unknown (eg, the proportion of asymptomatic cases and the duration of viremia). Estimating the prevalence of Zika infections is difficult because a large proportion of infected individuals do not seek medical attention, and seroprevalence studies are hampered by antigenic cross-reactivity with other flaviviruses (eg, dengue virus).11 Here, we present a study of ZIKV infection in blood donors from Martinique island (French West Indies, Caribbean region), with novel epidemiological, biological, and clinical information that refines the picture of Zika fever in adults.

REFERENCE:
Gallian P, et al. Zika virus in asymptomatic blood donors in Martinique. Blood. 2017 Jan 12;129(2):263-266.
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lunes, 16 de enero de 2017

NOM-051-SCT2-2011, Clasificación de substancias infecciosas y embalaje

CONSIDERANDO:
Que es necesario establecer las disposiciones generales que se deben cumplir para el transporte de los envases y embalajes de las substancias peligrosas de la división 6.2 agentes infecciosos.
Que dada la importancia de la utilización de envases y embalajes de las substancias peligrosas de la división 6.2, es menester que se realice bajo condiciones que garanticen la seguridad en la prestación de los servicios de transporte, y que esto no represente un riesgo para la población y el medio ambiente.
Se publicó la:
NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-051-SCT2/2011, Especificaciones para la clasificación de las substancias infecciosas y especificaciones especiales y adicionales para la construcción y ensayo (prueba) de los envases y/o embalajes que transporten substancias infecciosas de la división 6.2, Categoría A.

Guidance on regulations for the Transport of Infectious Substances 2015–2016 (Se actualizará en los próximos meses para el periodo 2017-2018.)
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lunes, 9 de enero de 2017

European agreement: International carriage of dangerous goods by road

This authoritative Agreement is intended to increase the safety of international transport of dangerous goods by road. Its Annexes A and B contain the technical requirements for road transport, i.e. the conditions under which dangerous goods, when authorized for transport, may be carried internationally, as well as uniform provisions concerning the construction and operation of vehicles carrying dangerous goods. They also establish international requirements and procedures for training and safety obligations of participants. The Agreement has been regularly amended and updated since its entry into force. This version has been prepared on the basis of amendments applicable as from 1 January 2017.

REFERENCE:
European agreement concerning the international carriage of dangerous goods by road.
United Nations 2016.
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