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martes, 27 de marzo de 2018

Recreational Water and Infection

This paper reviews the latest evidence provided by epidemiological studies and quantitative microbial risk assessments (QMRAs) of infection risk from recreational water use. Studies for review were selected following a PubMed search for articles published between January 2010 and April 2014. Epidemiological studies show a generally elevated risk of gastrointestinal illness in bathers compared to non-bathers but often no clear association with water quality as measured by faecal indicator bacteria; this is especially true where study sites are impacted by non-point source pollution. Evidence from QMRAs support the lack of a consistent water quality association for non-point source-impacted beaches. It is suggested that source attribution, through quantified microbial source apportionment, linked with appropriate use of microbial source tracking methods should be employed as an integral part of future epidemiological surveys.

REFERENCE:
Fewtrell L, Kay D. Recreational Water and Infection: A Review of Recent Findings. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015 Mar;2(1):85-94. doi: 10.1007/s40572-014-0036-6. Review.

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lunes, 26 de marzo de 2018

Analysis of the risk of acquiring infections from recreational exposure to seawater

Background: Numerous illnesses are associated with bathing in natural waters, although it is assumed that the risk of illness among bathers exposed to relatively clean waters found in high-income countries is negligible. A systematic review was carried out to quantify the increased risk of experiencing a range of adverse health outcomes among bathers exposed to coastal water compared with non-bathers.
Methods: In all 6919 potentially relevant titles and abstracts were screened, and from these 40 studies were eligible for inclusion in the review. Odds ratios (OR) were extracted from 19 of these reports and combined in random-effect meta-analyses for the following adverse health outcomes: incident cases of any illness, ear infections, gastrointestinal illness and infections caused by specific microorganisms.
Results: There is an increased risk of experiencing symptoms of any illness [OR = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.31 to 2.64, P = 0.001] and ear ailments (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.49 to 2.82, P < 0.001) in bathers compared with non-bathers. There is also an increased risk of experiencing gastrointestinal ailments (OR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.49, P < 0.001).
Conclusions:  This is the first systematic review to evaluate evidence on the increased risk of acquiring illnesses from bathing in seawater compared with non-bathers. Our results support the notion that infections are acquired from bathing in coastal waters, and that bathers have a greater risk of experiencing a variety of illnesses compared with non-bathers.

REFERENCES:
Leonard AFC, et al. Is it safe to go back into the water? A systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of acquiring infections from recreational exposure to seawater. Int J Epidemiol. 2018 Feb 26.  doi: 10.1093/ije/dyx281.

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viernes, 23 de marzo de 2018

Transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases in airline flights

With over 3 billion airline passengers annually, the inflight transmission of infectious diseases is an important global health concern. Over a dozen cases of inflight transmission of serious infections have been documented, and air travel can serve as a conduit for the rapid spread of newly emerging infections and pandemics. Despite sensational media stories, risks of transmission of respiratory viruses in an airplane cabin are unknown. Movements of passengers and crew may facilitate disease transmission. On 10 transcontinental US flights, we chronicled behaviors and movements of individuals in the economy cabin on single-aisle aircraft. We simulated transmission during flight based on these data. This data-driven, dynamic network transmission model of droplet-mediated respiratory disease is unique.

REFERENCE:
Hertzberg VS, et al. Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Mar 19. pii: 201711611. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1711611115.
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jueves, 22 de marzo de 2018

#WebinarAMEXBIO: Equipo de protección

Equipo de protección para laboratorios microbiológicos
  1. Guantes           Abril 6, 2018
  2. Batas               Abril 20, 2018
  3. Respiradores   Abril 27, 2018
13:00 hrs., Cd. de México
Registro gratuito. Cupo limitado.
No se emiten constancias

PRE-REGISTRO

En esta serie de 3 seminarios en línea (webinar) se revisarán las características del equipo de protección para el manejo de microorganismos. Así mismo, se revisarán las estrategias para un uso adecuado. De la misma forma revisar la importancia de la normatividad oficial correspondiente vigente.

No se emiten constancias de asistencia.
Pre-registro por internet en: https://goo.gl/AAS1jm
Descarguen la App para escuchar este webinar AQUI.

www.amexbio.org

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Development and Testing of a Method for Validating Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus

Complete inactivation of infectious Ebola virus (EBOV) is required before a sample may be removed from a Biosafety Level 4 laboratory. The United States Federal Select Agent Program regulations require that procedures used to demonstrate chemical inactivation must be validated in-house to confirm complete inactivation. The objective of this study was to develop a method for validating chemical inactivation of EBOV and then demonstrate the effectiveness of several commonly-used inactivation methods. Samples containing infectious EBOV (Zaire ebolavirus) in different matrices were treated, and the sample was diluted to limit the cytopathic effect of the inactivant. The presence of infectious virus was determined by assessing the cytopathic effect in Vero E6 cells. Crucially, this method did not result in a loss of infectivity in control samples, and we were able to detect less than five infectious units of EBOV (Zaire ebolavirus). We found that TRIzol LS reagent and RNA-Bee inactivated EBOV in serum; TRIzol LS reagent inactivated EBOV in clarified cell culture media; TRIzol reagent inactivated EBOV in tissue and infected Vero E6 cells; 10% neutral buffered formalin inactivated EBOV in tissue; and osmium tetroxide vapors inactivated EBOV on transmission electron microscopy grids. The methods described herein are easily performed and can be adapted to validate inactivation of viruses in various matrices and by various chemical methods.
REFERENCE:
Alfson KJ, Griffiths A. Development and Testing of a Method for Validating Chemical Inactivation of Ebola Virus. Viruses. 2018 Mar 13;10(3). pii: E126.


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martes, 20 de marzo de 2018

Reunión Anual de la Red Suiza de Bioseguridad 2018 #SBNet

La Red Suiza de Bioseguridad, realizará del 23 al 24 de Agosto, 12th Applied Biosafety Meeting, en el Palazzo dei Congressi, en Lugano, Suiza

INFORMES Y REGISTRO:
PROGRAMA
http://www.swissbiosafety.ch

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lunes, 19 de marzo de 2018

Infection Prevention and Control Measures in the Emergency Department

This document has been prepared in connection with Action 8 of the Ministère de la Santé et des Services sociaux’ (MSSS) Plan d’action sur la prévention et le contrôle des infections nosocomiales 2010-2015 [2010-2015 Action plan for healthcare-associated infections prevention and control](4). Its purpose is to make recommendations for IPC in the emergency departments of Québec’s hospitals. The recommendations are primarily intended for general and specialized hospital centres. They will have to be adapted according to the facility’s mission, the patient population served and various local epidemiological factors. The recommendations in the document are categorized under the different areas of the emergency department (Appendix 1) and integrate Health Canada’s three-tier hierarchy of IPC controls: engineering controls, administrative controls, and personal protective equipment (Appendix 2). Engineering control recommendations should be given priority when constructing new emergency departments or renovating existing emergency departments. An action plan should be developed to ensure these recommendations are integrated into future work.
REFERENCE:
Infection Prevention and Control Measures in the Emergency Department. Comité sur les infections nosocomiales du Québec (CINQ). Institut national de santé publique du Québec, 2015.

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lunes, 12 de marzo de 2018

Occupational Hazards in the Thai Healthcare Sector

Healthcare personnel work in vulnerable conditions that can adversely impact physical and/or mental health. This paper aims to synthesize the state of knowledge on work-related illnesses, injuries, and risks experienced by Thai healthcare workers. We found that Thai healthcare personnel, like others worldwide, are at risk for injury related to needle sticks and sharp instruments; infectious diseases due to biological hazards exposure such as airborne pathogens and patient secretions; muscle pain due to workload and long duration of work; and psychological disorders related to stressful working conditions. Because detailed surveillance data are limited for the Thai healthcare workforce, we recommend that additional surveillance data on Thai healthcare workers’ health outcomes be collected. Future research efforts should also focus on evidence-based interventions in order to develop methods to prevent and treat occupational health injuries and illnesses acquired in the workplace for Thai healthcare sector workers.
REFERENCE:
Tipayamongkholgul, Mathuros et al. “Occupational Hazards in the Thai Healthcare Sector.” New solutions : a journal of environmental and occupational health policy : NS 26.1 (2016): 83–102. PMC. Web. 5 Mar. 2018.


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lunes, 5 de marzo de 2018

Certification & validation of biosafety level-2 & biosafety level-3 laboratories in Indian settings & common issues

MIT Lab (render)
With increasing awareness regarding biorisk management worldwide, many biosafety laboratories are being setup in India. It is important for the facility users, project managers and the executing agencies to understand the process of validation and certification of such biosafety laboratories. There are some international guidelines available, but there are no national guidelines or reference standards available in India on certification and validation of biosafety laboratories. There is no accredited government/private agency available in India to undertake validation and certification of biosafety laboratories. Therefore, the reliance is mostly on indigenous experience, talent and expertise available, which is in short supply. This article elucidates the process of certification and validation of biosafety laboratories in a concise manner for the understanding of the concerned users and suggests the important parameters and criteria that should be considered and addressed during the laboratory certification and validation process.
REFERENCE

Mourya DT,et al. Certification & validation of biosafety level-2 & biosafety level-3 laboratories in Indian settings & common issues. J Med Res. 2017 Oct; 146(4): 459–467. doi:  10.4103/ijmr.IJMR_974_16

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