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jueves, 28 de septiembre de 2017

Herramientas para la gestión del riesgo químico

Este documento pretende dar a conocer algunos de los métodos y modelos que se encuentran disponibles, sus características básicas, las variables que consideran, la revisión bibliográfica de los mismos, el marco normativo en el que se desarrollan y ver dónde y cómo encajan estas herramientas en nuestro sistema de prevención de riesgos laborales, principalmente en el marco de la higiene industrial (ver figura 1) y en particular en la gestión de los riesgos derivados de la exposición a agentes químicos.
REFERENCIA:
HERRAMIENTAS PARA LA GESTIÓN DEL RIESGO QUÍMICO: Métodos de evaluación cualitativa y modelos de estimación de la exposición. Ministerio de empleo y seguridad social. Gobierno de España.

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lunes, 25 de septiembre de 2017

Recomendaciones del @CDC en caso de terremotos. #fuertemexico #fuerzamexico

El sobrevivir a un terremoto y reducir el impacto en la salud requiere de preparación, planificación y práctica. Con mucha anticipación, usted puede acumular suministros de emergencia, identificar y disminuir los posibles riesgos en su hogar y practicar lo que debe hacer durante y después de un terremoto. Aprender qué medidas se deben tomar puede ayudarle a usted y a su familia a permanecer sanos y salvos en caso de un terremoto.
Esta guía contiene información general de que hacer antes, durante y después de un terremoto.
REFERENCIAS:
https://www.cdc.gov/es/disasters/earthquakes/index.html

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Unintended spread of a #biosafety level 2 recombinant retrovirus

Background: Contamination of vertebrate cell lines with animal retroviruses has been documented repeatedly before. Although such viral contaminants can be easily identified with high sensitivity by PCR, it is impossible to screen for all potential contaminants. Therefore, we explored two novel methods to identify viral contaminations in cell lines without prior knowledge of the kind of contaminant.
Results: The first hint for the presence of contaminating retroviruses in one of our cell lines was obtained by electron microscopy of exosome-like vesicles released from the supernatants of transfected 293T cells. Random amplification of particle associated RNAs (PAN-PCR) from supernatant of contaminated 293T cells and sequencing of the amplicons revealed several nucleotide sequences showing highest similarity to either murine leukemia virus (MuLV) or squirrel monkey retrovirus (SMRV). Subsequent mass spectrometry analysis confirmed our findings, since we could identify several peptide sequences originating from monkey and murine retroviral proteins. Quantitative PCRs were established for both viruses to test currently cultured cell lines as well as liquid nitrogen frozen cell stocks. Gene fragments for both viruses could be detected in a broad range of permissive cell lines from multiple species. Furthermore, experimental infections of cells negative for these viruses showed that both viruses replicate rapidly to high loads. We decided to further analyze the genomic sequence of the MuLV-like contaminant virus. Surprisingly it was neither identical to MuLV nor to the novel xenotropic MuLV related retrovirus (XMRV) but showed 99% identity to a synthetic retrovirus which was engineered in the 1980s.
Conclusion: The high degree of nucleotide identity suggests unintended spread of a biosafety level 2 recombinant virus, which could also affect the risk assessment of gene-modified organisms released from contaminated cell cultures. The study further indicates that both mass spectrometry and PAN-PCR are powerful methods to identify viral contaminations in cell lines without prior knowledge of the kind of contaminant. Both methods might be useful tools for testing cell lines before using them for critical purposes.
REFERENCE:
Stang, Alexander et al. “Unintended Spread of a Biosafety Level 2 Recombinant Retrovirus.” Retrovirology 6 (2009): 86. PMC. Web. 8 Sept. 2017.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2760500/

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lunes, 18 de septiembre de 2017

#WebinarAMEXBIO Transporte de Sustancias Infecciosas entre Instituciones

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Detection of viral proteins in human cells lines by xeno-proteomics

Cell cultures used routinely in proteomic experiments may contain proteins from other species because of infection, transfection or just contamination. Since infection or contamination may affect the results of a biological experiment, it is important to test the samples for the presence of “alien” proteins. Usually cells are tested only for the most common infections, and most of the existing tests are targeting specific contaminations. Here we describe a three-step procedure for reliable untargeted detection of viral proteins using proteomics data, and recommend this or similar procedure to be applied to every proteomics dataset submitted for publication.
REFERENCE:
Chernobrovkin AL, Zubarev RA. Detection of viral proteins in human cells lines by xeno-proteomics: elimination of the last valid excuse for not testing every cellular proteome dataset for viral proteins. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 11;9(3):e91433.  doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091433. eCollection 2014. PubMed PMID: 24618588; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3950186

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miércoles, 13 de septiembre de 2017

Selecting Protective Clothing for Protection against Microorganisms in Blood and Body Fluids

Healthcare workers can be exposed to biological fluids that are capable of transmitting diseases. Those diseases, which are caused by a variety of microorganisms such as, Hepatitis B virus (HBV), Hepatitis C virus (HCV), Ebola Virus, and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) can pose significant risks to life and health. Healthcare workers wear protective clothing (e.g., surgical gowns, isolation gowns, and coveralls) to protect both patients and themselves from the transfer of microorganisms by blood and body fluids. A common misunderstanding among many end-users is that they are protected from blood, body fluids, and other potentially infectious materials when they wear any type of fluid-resistant garment. This document provides an overview of scientific evidence and information on national and international standards, test methods, and specifications for fluid-resistant and impermeable gowns and coveralls used in healthcare. This document focuses on selecting protective clothing primarily on the basis of their barrier properties; it does not address all aspects of garments related to their design, integrity, durability, comfort, and functionality.

REFERENCE
Considerations for Selecting Protective Clothing used in Healthcare for Protection against Microorganisms in Blood and Body Fluids
Download PDF HERE or HERE

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lunes, 11 de septiembre de 2017

Guidance for Donning and Doffing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) for #Ebola

The following informational materials demonstrate the procedures described in CDC guidance for donning and doffing (i.e., putting on and removing) personal protective equipment (PPE) for all healthcare providers entering the room of a patient hospitalized with known or suspected Ebola virus disease (Ebola). These informational materials are intended to promote patient safety and increase the safety of the healthcare provider.
Prior to working with Ebola patients, all healthcare providers involved in the care of Ebola patients must receive training and demonstrate competency in performing all Ebola-related infection control practices and procedures, specifically in donning and doffing proper PPE.

REFERENCE:
Guidance for Donning and Doffing Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) During Management of Patients with Ebola Virus Disease in U.S. Hospitals. CDC 2014.

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jueves, 7 de septiembre de 2017

Acerca de las batas médicas

FRAGMENTO:
Las batas son ejemplos de equipos de protección personal utilizados en los entornos de atención médica. Se utilizan para proteger al usuario de la propagación de una infección o enfermedad si el usuario entra en contacto con material líquido y sólido potencialmente infeccioso. También pueden usarse para ayudar a evitar que el usuario del vestido pueda contaminar a pacientes vulnerables, como aquellos con sistemas inmunológicos debilitados. Las batas son una parte de una estrategia de control de infecciones. Algunos de los muchos términos que se han utilizado para referirse a las batas destinados a ser utilizados en los entornos de atención médica, incluyen batas quirúrgicas, ropa de aislamiento, ropa de aislamiento quirúrgico, batas no quirúrgicos, batas de procedimiento y batas sala de operaciones.
 En 2004, la FDA reconoció el estándar de consensodel  American National Standards Institute/Association of the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (ANSI/AAMI) PB70:2003, “Liquid barrier performance and classification of protective apparel and drapes intended for use in health care facilities.”. La nueva terminología de la norma describe los niveles de protección de barrera de batas y otras prendas de protección destinadas a ser utilizadas en instalaciones de atención médica y especifica métodos de prueba y resultados de desempeño necesarios para verificar y validar los niveles de protección recientemente definidos:
  • Nivel 1: Riesgo mínimo, para ser utilizado, por ejemplo, durante la atención básica, aislamiento estándar, vestido de cubierta para los visitantes, o en una unidad médica estándar 
  • Nivel 2: Bajo riesgo, que se utilizará, por ejemplo, durante la extracción de sangre, sutura, en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI), o un laboratorio de patología 
  • Nivel 3: Riesgo moderado, que se utilizará, por ejemplo, durante la extracción de sangre arterial, inserción de una vía intravenosa (IV), en la sala de emergencias o en casos de traumatismos 
  • Nivel 4: Alto riesgo, para ser utilizado, por ejemplo, durante largos procedimientos intensivos en líquidos, cirugía, cuando se necesita resistencia a patógenos o se sospecha de enfermedades infecciosas (no aerotransportadas)
REFERENCIAS (INGLES)
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miércoles, 6 de septiembre de 2017

lunes, 4 de septiembre de 2017

Eye Safety in Dentistry and Associated Liability

The first objective of this article is to expressan experimental-work-supported opinion ofits authors regarding the inadequacy of thepresent dental mask and regular eyewearcombination for protecting dental care practitioners. Its second objective is to suggestamending OSHA Standard 1910.133(a)(1) tomandate effective eye protection for dentalcare practitioners by requiring the use ofeffective means for closing the bottom gapsbetween the lower rims of the lenses of theprotective eyewear and the upper edge ofthe mask worn by the practitioner.The various types and sources of dentalpractice eye occupational hazards and thepossible entry routes of dental debris towarddental practitioners'eyes are discussed.Experimental work, confirming theinadequacy of the present dental mask andeyewear combination for protecting dentalcare practitioners, is presented.
REFERENCE:
Arsenault P, Tayebi A. Eye Safety in Dentistry and Associated Liability. J Mass Dent Soc. 2016 Winter;64(4):12-6. PubMed PMID: 27197360.

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