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jueves, 29 de septiembre de 2016

Microneedles: A New Frontier in Nanomedicine Delivery

This review aims to concisely chart the development of two individual research fields, namely nanomedicines, with specific emphasis on nanoparticles (NP) and microparticles (MP), and microneedle (MN) technologies, which have, in the recent past, been exploited in combinatorial approaches for the efficient delivery of a variety of medicinal agents across the skin. This is an emerging and exciting area of pharmaceutical sciences research within the remit of transdermal drug delivery and as such will undoubtedly continue to grow with the emergence of new formulation and fabrication methodologies for particles and MN. Firstly, the fundamental aspects of skin architecture and structure are outlined, with particular reference to their influence on NP and MP penetration. Following on from this, a variety of different particles are described, as are the diverse range of MN modalities currently under development. The review concludes by highlighting some of the novel delivery systems which have been described in the literature exploiting these two approaches and directs the reader towards emerging uses for nanomedicines in combination with MN.

REFERENCE:
Larrañeta, Eneko et al. “Microneedles: A New Frontier in Nanomedicine Delivery.” Pharmaceutical Research 33 (2016): 1055–1073. PMC.
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lunes, 26 de septiembre de 2016

Use of Ultraviolet (UV) Lights in Biological Safety Cabinets

The purpose of this paper is to review information available on the use, risks and benefits of using Ultraviolet (UV) lights in Biological Safety Cabinets (BSC) and set forth a position based on the risk and benefits.

REFERENCE:
BurgenerJ.  Position Paper on the Use of Ultraviolet Lights in Biological Safety Cabinets. Applied Biosafety (2006), 11(4) pp. 228-230
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jueves, 22 de septiembre de 2016

Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers

Waste management, namely, collection, transport, sorting and processing, and disposal, is an issue of social concern owing to its environmental impact and effects on public health. In fact, waste management activities are carried out according to procedures that can have various negative effects on the environment and, potentially, on human health. The aim of our study was to assess the potential effects on respiratory health of this exposure in workers in the waste management and disposal field, as compared with a group of workers with no occupational exposure to outdoor pollutants. The sample consisted of a total of 124 subjects, 63 waste collectors, and 61 office clerks. Informed consent was obtained from all subjects before inclusion in the study. The entire study population underwent pulmonary function assessments with spirometry and completed two validated questionnaires for the diagnosis of rhinitis and chronic bronchitis. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 13. Spirometry showed a statistically significant reduction in the mean Tiffenau Index values in the exposed workers, as compared with the controls, after adjusting for the confounding factors of age, BMI, and smoking habit. Similarly, the mean FEV1 values were lower in the exposed workers than in the controls, this difference being again statistically significant. The FVC differences measured in the two groups were not found to be statistically significant. We ran a cross-sectional study to investigate the respiratory health of a group of workers in the solid waste collection and disposal field as compared with a group of office workers. In agreement with most of the data in the literature, our findings support the existence of a prevalence of respiratory deficits in waste disposal workers. Our data suggest the importance of adopting preventive measures, such as wearing specific individual protection devices, to protect this particular category of workers from adverse effects on respiratory health.

REFERENCE:
Vimercati, Luigi et al. “Respiratory Health in Waste Collection and Disposal Workers.” Ed. Paul B. Tchounwou. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13.7 (2016): 631. PMC. Web. 18 Aug. 2016.

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lunes, 19 de septiembre de 2016

Pregnancy, Labor, Delivery & Ebola: Implications for Infection Control in Obstetrics

UNICEF pregnant woman
Many of the survivors of the 2014–2015 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa were women of childbearing age. Limited clinical and laboratory data exist that describe these women’s pregnancies and outcomes. We report the case of an EVD survivor who became pregnant and delivered her child in the United States, and we discuss implications of this case for infection control practices in obstetric services. Hospitals in the United States must be prepared to care for EVD survivors.

REFERENCE:
Kamali, Amanda et al. “Pregnancy, Labor, and Delivery after Ebola Virus Disease and Implications for Infection Control in Obstetric Services, United States.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 22.7 (2016): 1156–1161. PMC. Web. 18 Aug. 2016.

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lunes, 12 de septiembre de 2016

#Ebola response in Sierra Leone: The impact on children

The West African Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak is the largest ever seen, with over 28,000 cases and 11,300 deaths since early 2014. The magnitude of the outbreak has tested fragile governmental health systems and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) to their limit. Here we discuss the outbreak in the Western Area of Sierra Leone, the shape of the local response and the impact the response had on caring for children suspected of having contracted EVD. Challenges encountered in providing clinical care to children whilst working in the “Red Zone” where risk of EVD is considered to be highest, wearing full personal protective equipment are detailed. Suggestions and recommendations both for further research and for operational improvement in the future are made, with particular reference as to how a response could be more child-focused.

REFERENCE:
Fitzgerald, Felicity et al. “Ebola Response in Sierra Leone: The Impact on Children.” The Journal of Infection 72.Suppl (2016): S6–S12. PMC. Web. 18 Aug. 2016.

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jueves, 8 de septiembre de 2016

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection

Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment (QMRA) methodology, which has already been applied to drinking water and food safety, may also be applied to risk assessment and management at the workplace. The present study developed a preliminary QMRA model to assess microbial risk that is associated with inhaling bioaerosols that are contaminated with human adenovirus (HAdV). This model has been applied to air contamination data from different occupational settings, including wastewater systems, solid waste landfills, and toilets in healthcare settings and offices, with different exposure times. Virological monitoring showed the presence of HAdVs in all the evaluated settings, thus confirming that HAdV is widespread, but with different average concentrations of the virus. The QMRA results, based on these concentrations, showed that toilets had the highest probability of viral infection, followed by wastewater treatment plants and municipal solid waste landfills. Our QMRA approach in occupational settings is novel, and certain caveats should be considered. Nonetheless, we believe it is worthy of further discussions and investigations.

REFERENCE:
Carducci, Annalaura et al. “Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment in Occupational Settings Applied to the Airborne Human Adenovirus Infection.” Ed. Andrew Watterson. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 13.7 (2016): 733. PMC. Web. 18 Aug. 2016.

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lunes, 5 de septiembre de 2016

Occupational health related concerns among surgeons

The surgeon’s daily workload renders him/her susceptible to a variety of the common work-related illness. They are exposed to a number of occupational hazards in their professional work. These hazards include sharp injuries, blood borne pathogens, latex allergy, laser plumes, hazardous chemicals, anesthetic gases, equipment hazards, static postures, and job related stressors. However, many pay little attention to their health, and neither do they seek the appropriate help when necessary. It is observed that occupational hazards pose a huge risk to the personal well-being of surgeons. As such, the importance of early awareness and education alongside prompt intervention is duly emphasized. Therefore, increased attention to the health, economic, personal, and social implications of these injuries is essential for appropriate management and future prevention. These risks are as great as any other occupational hazards affecting surgeons today. The time has come to recognize and address them.

REFERENCE:
Memon, Anjuman Gul et al. “Occupational Health Related Concerns among Surgeons.” International Journal of Health Sciences 10.2 (2016): 279–291. Print.

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jueves, 1 de septiembre de 2016

Prevalence of Respiratory Protective Devices in U.S. Health Care Facilities

An online questionnaire was developed to explore respiratory protective device (RPD) prevalence in U.S. health care facilities. The survey was distributed to professional nursing society members in 2014 and again in 2015 receiving 322 and 232 participant responses, respectively. The purpose of this study was to explore if the emergency preparedness climate associated with Ebola virus disease changed the landscape of RPD use and awareness. Comparing response percentages from the two sampling time frames using bivariate analysis, no significant changes were found in types of RPDs used in health care settings. N95 filtering facepiece respirators continue to be the most prevalent RPD used in health care facilities, but powered air-purifying respirators are also popular, with regional use highest in the West and Midwest. Understanding RPD use prevalence could ensure that health care workers receive appropriate device trainings as well as improve supply matching for emergency RPD stockpiling.

REFERENCE:
Wizner, Kerri et al. “Prevalence of Respiratory Protective Devices in U.S. Health Care Facilities: Implications for Emergency Preparedness.” Workplace health & safety 64.8 (2016): 359–368. PMC. Web. 18 Aug. 2016.

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