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jueves, 30 de noviembre de 2017

Enterococcus hirae biofilm formation on hospital material surfaces and effect of new biocides

BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the bacterial contamination in the hospital environment is of particular concern because the hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), also known as nosocomial infections, are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. This work evaluated the capability of Enterococcus hirae to form biofilm on different surfaces and the action of two biocides on the produced biofilms.
METHODS: The biofilm formation of E. hirae ATCC 10541 was studied on polystyrene and stainless steel surfaces through the biomass quantification and the cell viability at 20 and 37 °C. The effect of LHIDROXI FAST and LH ENZYCLEAN SPRAY biocides on biomasses was expressed as percentage of biofilm reduction. E. hirae at 20 and 37 °C produced more biofilm on the stainless steel in respect to the polystyrene surface. The amount of viable cells was greater at 20 °C than with 37 °C on the two analyzed surfaces. Biocides revealed a good anti-biofilm activity with the most effect for LH ENZYCLEAN SPRAY on polystyrene and stainless steel at 37 °C with a maximum biofilm reduction of 85.72 and 86.37%, respectively.
RESULTS: E. hirae is a moderate biofilm producer depending on surface material and temperature, and the analyzed biocides express a remarkable antibiofilm action.
CONCLUSION: The capability of E. hirae to form biofilm can be associated with its increasing incidence in hospital-acquired infections, and the adoption of suitable disinfectants is strongly recommended.
REFERENCIA:
Di Lodovico S, et al. Enterococcus hirae biofilm formation on hospital material surfaces and effect of new biocides. Environ Health Prev Med. 2017 Aug 2;22(1):63. doi: 10.1186/s12199-017-0670-3. PubMed PMID: 29165147; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC5664585.

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miércoles, 8 de noviembre de 2017

Guidance on regulations for the transport of infectious substances 2017–2018

This publication provides information for identifying, classifying, marking, labelling, packaging, documenting and refrigerating infectious substances for transportation and ensuring their safe delivery.
The document provides practical guidance to facilitate compliance with applicable international regulations for the transport of infectious substances by all modes of transport, both nationally and internationally, and include the changes that apply from 1 January 2017. The current revision replaces the document issued by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015 (document WHO/HSE/GCR/2015.2). This publication, however, does not replace national and international transport regulations.

Applicable as from 1 January 2017

Authors:
World Health Organization

Publication details

Number of pages40
Publication date2017
LanguagesEnglish
WHO reference numberWHO/WHE/CPI/2017.8

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lunes, 6 de noviembre de 2017

Biological samples transportation by drones: ready for prime time?

FRAGMENT:
According to the concept originally introduced by George D. Lundberg in the 1980s, the total testing process entails three essential and sequential parts, that are the preanalytical phase, the analytical phase and the postanalytical phase (1). Briefly, the preanalytical phase encompasses all those (prevalently) manually-intensive activities designed for obtaining, handling, transporting, preparing and storing biological samples before testing (2). Reliable evidence, accumulated after decades of research aimed to improve the total quality of the testing process, underpins the notion that the vast majority of problems in laboratory diagnostics are attributable to incorrect or inappropriate preanalytical activities (3).
REFERENCE:
Lippi, Giuseppe, and Camilla Mattiuzzi. “Biological Samples Transportation by Drones: Ready for Prime Time?” Annals of Translational Medicine 4.5 (2016): 92. PMC. Web. 6 Nov. 2017.

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miércoles, 1 de noviembre de 2017

Molecular Viability Testing of UV-Inactivated Bacteria

The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is effective at detecting bacterial DNA in samples, but it is unable to differentiate viable bacteria from inactivated cells or free DNA fragments. New PCR-based analytical strategies have been developed to address this limitation. Molecular viability testing (MVT) correlates bacterial viability with the ability to rapidly synthesize species-specific ribosomal RNA precursor (pre-rRNA) in response to brief nutritional stimulation. Previous studies demonstrated that MVT can assess bacterial inactivation by chlorine, serum, and low-temperature pasteurization. Here, we demonstrate that MVT can detect inactivation of Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Enterococcus faecalis cells by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. Some UV-inactivated E. coli cells transiently retained the ability to synthesize pre-rRNA post-irradiation (generating false-positive MVT results), but this activity ceased within one hour following UV exposure. Viable but transiently undetectable (by culture) E. coli cells were consistently detected by MVT. An alternative viability testing method, viability PCR (vPCR), correlates viability with cell envelope integrity. This method did not distinguish viable from UV-inactivated bacteria under some conditions, indicating that the inactivated cells retained intact cell envelopes. MVT holds promise as a means to rapidly assess microbial inactivation by UV treatment.
IMPORTANCE Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is increasingly used to disinfect water, food, and other materials for human use. Confirming the effectiveness of UV disinfection remains a challenging task. In particular, microbiological methods that rely on rapid detection of microbial DNA can yield misleading results. This is due to the detection of “remnant” DNA associated with dead microbial cells. This report describes a novel method that rapidly distinguishes living from dead microbial cells after UV disinfection.
REFERENCE:
Kris M. Weigel, et al. Molecular Viability Testing of UV-Inactivated Bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2017 May 15; 83(10): e00331-17. Prepublished online 2017 Mar 10. Published online 2017 May 1. doi: 10.1128/AEM.00331-17. PMCID: PMC5411506

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