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lunes, 31 de octubre de 2016

Informe Mundial sobre el Paludismo 2015

El Informe Mundial sobre el Paludismo 2015 resume la información recibida de los países en los que esta enfermedad es endémica, así como de otras fuentes. En él se evalúan las tendencias mundiales y regionales del paludismo, se destacan los progresos realizados hacia la consecución de las metas mundiales, y se describen las oportunidades y los desafíos en el control y eliminación de la enfermedad.
El informe muestra una disminución dramática en la carga global del paludismo desde el 2000. Cincuenta y siete países redujeron sus casos de paludismo en un 75%, en línea con las metas de la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud para el 2015.
A pesar de este enorme progreso, todavía queda mucho por hacer para reducir aún más la carga del paludismo. La Estrategia Técnica Mundial contra la Malaria 2016-2030, aprobada por la Asamblea Mundial de la Salud en mayo de 2015, establece objetivos ambiciosos pero alcanzables para el año 2030, incluyendo una reducción de por lo menos el 90% en la incidencia y mortalidad por paludismo a nivel mundial.

REFERENCE:
Informe Mundial sobre el Paludismo 2015
Número de páginas: 32
Fecha de publicación: 2016
Idiomas: Español, francés e inglés
Número de referencia OMS: WHO/HTM/GMP.2016.2 (resumen)
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Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review

Human safety and well-being is threatened by microbes causing numerous infectious diseases resulting in a large number of deaths every year. Despite substantial progress in antimicrobial drugs, many infectious diseases remain difficult to treat. Antimicrobial polymers offer a promising antimicrobial strategy for fighting pathogens and have received considerable attention in both academic and industrial research. This mini-review presents the advances made in antimicrobial polymers since 2013. Antimicrobial mechanisms exhibiting either passive or active action and polymer material types containing bound or leaching antimicrobials are introduced. This article also addresses the applications of these antimicrobial polymers in the medical, food, and textile industries.

REFERENCE:
Huang, Keng-Shiang et al. “Recent Advances in Antimicrobial Polymers: A Mini-Review.” Ed. Antonella Piozzi and Iolanda Francolini. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 17.9 (2016): 1578.
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jueves, 27 de octubre de 2016

VIDEO: Safety procedures for handling sharps

This VIDEO discusses proper safety procedures for handling sharps in the lab:


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lunes, 24 de octubre de 2016

The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER)

The Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) serves as an essential instrument for the rapid and accurate dissemination of epidemiological information on cases and outbreaks of diseases under the International Health Regulations and on other communicable diseases of public health importance, including emerging or re-emerging infections.

REFERENCE:
Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER)

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martes, 18 de octubre de 2016

Niveles de bioseguridad



REFERENCIA:
Página 15. Manual de bioseguridad en el laboratorio. Tercera edición, Organización Mundial de la Salud. 2005. ISBN 9243546503
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#WEBINAR: The Necrobiome - Microbial Life After Death

What happens to us after we die? A decomposing corpse becomes its own mini-ecosystem, hosting insects, scavengers and multitudes of microbes. Microbes from the environment, the corpse, as well as the insects and scavengers are blended together and work to recycle tissues back to their constituents. Dr. Jennifer DeBruyn will discuss the fascinating process of human decomposition, and how scientists are using that information to inform forensic science, livestock mortality management and fossilization. The talk will start promptly at 6:30 p.m. ET (CDMX: 5:30 p.m.), an you can watch onlineat the ASM Youtube Channel:  https://youtu.be/iqVpL0y5ofM

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jueves, 13 de octubre de 2016

HIGH-CONTAINMENT LABS: Improved Oversight of Dangerous Pathogens Needed to Mitigate Risk

The total number of incidents involving incomplete inactivation—a process to destroy the hazardous effects of pathogens while retaining characteristics for future use—that occurred from 2003 through 2015 is unknown for several reasons. One key reason is that the Select Agent Program—operated by the Departments of Health and Human Services (HHS) and Agriculture (USDA) to oversee certain dangerous pathogens, known as select agents—does not require laboratories to identify such incidents on reporting forms. According to the program, 10 incidents occurred from 2003 through 2015. However, GAO identified an additional 11 incidents that the program did not initially identify. Because the program cannot easily identify incidents involving incomplete inactivation, it does not know the frequency or reason they occur, making it difficult to develop guidance to help mitigate future incidents. The 21 identified incidents involved a variety of pathogens and laboratories, as shown below.

REFERENCE:
HIGH-CONTAINMENT LABORATORIES: Improved Oversight of Dangerous Pathogens Needed to Mitigate Risk. GAO-16-642: Published: Aug 30, 2016. Publicly Released: Sep 21, 2016.
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lunes, 10 de octubre de 2016

Measuring Pathogen Decay in Bioaerosols

This work aimed to develop an in vivo approach for measuring the duration of human bioaerosol infectivity. To achieve this, techniques designed to target short-term and long-term bioaerosol aging, were combined in a tandem system and optimized for the collection of human respiratory bioaerosols, without contamination. To demonstrate the technique, cough aerosols were sampled from two persons with cystic fibrosis and chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Measurements and cultures from aerosol ages of 10, 20, 40, 900 and 2700 seconds were used to determine the optimum droplet nucleus size for pathogen transport and the airborne bacterial biological decay. The droplet nuclei containing the greatest number of colony forming bacteria per unit volume of airborne sputum were between 1.5 and 2.6 μm. Larger nuclei of 3.9 μm, were more likely to produce a colony when impacted onto growth media, because the greater volume of sputum comprising the larger droplet nuclei, compensated for lower concentrations of bacteria within the sputum of larger nuclei. Although more likely to produce a colony, the larger droplet nuclei were small in number, and the greatest numbers of colonies were instead produced by nuclei from 1.5 to 5.7 μm. Very few colonies were produced by smaller droplet nuclei, despite their very large numbers. The concentration of viable bacteria within the dried sputum comprising the droplet nuclei exhibited an orderly dual decay over time with two distinct half-lives. Nuclei exhibiting a rapid biological decay process with a 10 second half-life were quickly exhausted, leaving only a subset characterized by a half-life of greater than 10 minutes. This finding implied that a subset of bacteria present in the aerosol was resistant to rapid biological decay and remained viable in room air long enough to represent an airborne infection risk.

REFERENCE:
Johnson, Graham R. et al. “A Novel Method and Its Application to Measuring Pathogen Decay in Bioaerosols from Patients with Respiratory Disease.” Ed. Nicole M. Bouvier. PLoS ONE 11.7 (2016): e0158763.
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jueves, 6 de octubre de 2016

Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit

Premature infants in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) have underdeveloped immune systems, making them susceptible to adverse health consequences from air pollutant exposure. Little is known about the sources of indoor airborne particles that contribute to the exposure of premature infants in the NICU environment. In this study, we monitored the spatial and temporal variations of airborne particulate matter concentrations along with other indoor environmental parameters and human occupancy. The experiments were conducted over one year in a private-style NICU. The NICU was served by a central heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system equipped with an economizer and a high-efficiency particle filtration system. The following parameters were measured continuously during weekdays with 1-min resolution: particles larger than 0.3 μm resolved into 6 size groups, CO2 level, dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity, and presence or absence of occupants. Altogether, over sixteen periods of a few weeks each, measurements were conducted in rooms occupied with premature infants. In parallel, a second monitoring station was operated in a nearby hallway or at the local nurses’ station. The monitoring data suggest a strong link between indoor particle concentrations and human occupancy. Detected particle peaks from occupancy were clearly discernible among larger particles and imperceptible for submicron (0.3–1 μm) particles. The mean indoor particle mass concentrations averaged across the size range 0.3–10 μm during occupied periods was 1.9 μg/m3, approximately 2.5 times the concentration during unoccupied periods (0.8 μg/m3). Contributions of within-room emissions to total PM10 mass in the baby rooms averaged 37–81%. Near-room indoor emissions and outdoor sources contributed 18–59% and 1–5%, respectively. Airborne particle levels in the size range 1–10 μm showed strong dependence on human activities, indicating the importance of indoor-generated particles for infant’s exposure to airborne particulate matter in the NICU.

REFERENCE:
Licina, Dusan et al. “Concentrations and Sources of Airborne Particles in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit.” Ed. Jeffrey Shaman. PLoS ONE 11.5 (2016): e0154991.

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lunes, 3 de octubre de 2016

Recent advances in synthetic biosafety

Synthetically engineered organisms hold promise for a broad range of medical, environmental, and industrial applications. Organisms can potentially be designed, for example, for the inexpensive and environmentally benign synthesis of pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals, for the cleanup of environmental pollutants, and potentially even for biomedical applications such as the targeting of specific diseases or tissues. However, the use of synthetically engineered organisms comes with several reasonable safety concerns, one of which is that the organisms or their genes could escape their intended habitats and cause environmental disruption. Here we review key recent developments in this emerging field of synthetic biocontainment and discuss further developments that might be necessary for the widespread use of synthetic organisms. Specifically, we discuss the history and modern development of three strategies for the containment of synthetic microbes: addiction to an exogenously supplied ligand; self-killing outside of a designated environment; and self-destroying encoded DNA circuitry outside of a designated environment.

REFERENCE:
Simon, Anna J., and Andrew D. Ellington. “Recent Advances in Synthetic Biosafety.” F1000 Research 5 (2016): F1000 Faculty Rev–2118. PMC. Web. 19 Sept. 2016.
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