FORO: Prevención integral de infecciones asociadas a la atención a la salud

Atenta invitación. 
Cámara de Diputados. Jueves 11 de abril de 2019. 
Cupo limitado. Llamar en horarios de oficina

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
-----------------------------------------------------------

Amphibian fungal panzootic causes catastrophic loss of biodiversity

Anthropogenic trade and development have broken down dispersal barriers, facilitating the spread of diseases that threaten Earth’s biodiversity. We present a global, quantitative assessment of the amphibian chytridiomycosis panzootic, one of the most impactful examples of disease spread, and demonstrate its role in the decline of at least 501 amphibian species over the past half-century, including 90 presumed extinctions. The effects of chytridiomycosis have been greatest in large-bodied, range-restricted anurans in wet climates in the Americas and Australia. Declines peaked in the 1980s, and only 12% of declined species show signs of recovery, whereas 39% are experiencing ongoing decline. There is risk of further chytridiomycosis outbreaks in new areas. The chytridiomycosis panzootic represents the greatest recorded loss of biodiversity attributable to a disease.
REFERENCE:
Scheele BC et al. Amphibian fungal panzootic causes catastrophic and ongoing loss of biodiversity.  29 Mar 2019: Vol. 363, Issue 6434, pp. 1459-1463 DOI: 10.1126/science.aav0379

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

#HIV prevalence in suspected #Ebola en Sierra Leona

BACKGROUND: The 2014-2016 Ebola virus epidemic in West Africa was the largest outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history. Clarifying the influence of other prevalent diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) will help improve treatment and supportive care of patients with EVD.
CASE PRESENTATION: We examined HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody prevalence among suspected EVD cases from the Sierra Leone-China Friendship Biological Safety Laboratory during the epidemic in Sierra Leone. HIV and HCV antibodies were tested in 678 EVD-negative samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A high HIV prevalence (17.6%) and low HCV prevalence (0.22%) were observed among the suspected cases. Notably, we found decreased HIV positive rates among the suspected cases over the course of the epidemic. This suggests a potentially beneficial effect of an improved public health system after assistance from the World Health Organization and other international aid organizations.
CONCLUSIONS: This EVD epidemic had a considerable impact on the public health system and influenced the prevalence of HIV found among suspected cases in Sierra Leone, but also provided an opportunity to establish a better surveillance network for infectious diseases.
REFERENCE:
Liu WJ, et al. HIV prevalence in suspected Ebola cases during the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in Sierra Leone. Infect Dis Poverty. 2019 Mar 4;8(1):15. doi: 10.1186/s40249-019-0525-9. 

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

Raccoon Rabies Virus Variant Transmission Through Solid Organ Transplantation

Importance: The rabies virus causes a fatal encephalitis and can be transmitted through tissue or organ transplantation. In February 2013, a kidney recipient with no reported exposures to potentially rabid animals died from rabies 18 months after transplantation. Objectives: To investigate whether organ transplantation was the source of rabies virus exposure in the kidney recipient, and to evaluate for and prevent rabies in other transplant recipients from the same donor. Design: Organ donor and all transplant recipient medical records were reviewed. Laboratory tests to detect rabies virus–specific binding antibodies, rabies virus neutralizing antibodies, and rabies virus antigens were conducted on available specimens, including serum, cerebrospinal fluid, and tissues from the donor and the recipients. Viral ribonucleic acid was extracted from tissues and amplified for nucleoprotein gene sequencing for phylogenetic comparisons. Main Outcomes and Measures: Determination of whether the donor died from undiagnosed rabies and whether other organ recipients developed rabies. Results: In retrospect, the donor’s clinical presentation (which began with vomiting and upper extremity paresthesias and progressed to fever, seizures, dysphagia, autonomic dysfunction, and brain death) was consistent with rabies. Rabies virus antigen was detected in archived autopsy brain tissue collected from the donor. The rabies viruses infecting the donor and the deceased kidney recipient were consistent with the raccoon rabies virus variant and were more than 99.9% identical across the entire N gene (1349/1350 nucleotides), thus confirming organ transplantation as the route of transmission. The 3 other organ recipients remained asymptomatic, with rabies virus neutralizing antibodies detected in their serum after completion of postexposure prophylaxis (range, 0.3-40.8 IU/mL). Conclusions and Relevance: Unlike the 2 previous clusters of rabies virus transmission through solid organ transplantation, there was a long incubation period in the recipient who developed rabies, and survival of 3 other recipients without pretransplant rabies vaccination. Rabies should be considered in patients with acute progressive encephalitis of unexplained etiology, especially for potential organ donors. A standard evaluation of potential donors who meet screening criteria for infectious encephalitis should be considered, and risks and benefits for recipients of organs from these donors should be evaluated.
REFERENCE:
Vora NM, Basavaraju SV, Feldman KA, et al. Raccoon Rabies Virus Variant Transmission Through Solid Organ Transplantation. JAMA. 2013;310(4):398–407. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.7986

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

#24Marzo Día Mundial contra la #Tuberculosis 2019 #EndTB

"Es hora de actuar" 
El 24 de marzo de cada año se celebra el Día Mundial de la Tuberculosis para concienciar sobre las terribles consecuencias sociales, económicas y para la salud de la tuberculosis (TB) y acelerar los esfuerzos por poner fin a la epidemia mundial de esta enfermedad. En esta fecha se conmemora el día de 1882 en el que el Dr. Robert Koch anunció que había descubierto la bacteria que provoca la TB, lo que posibilitó diagnosticar y curar la enfermedad.
La TB sigue siendo la enfermedad infecciosa más letal del mundo. Cada día mueren casi 4500 personas a causa de la TB y aproximadamente 30 000 personas contraen esta enfermedad prevenible y curable. Se calcula que los esfuerzos mundiales por luchar contra la TB han salvado 54 millones de vidas desde 2000 y han reducido la tasa de mortalidad por TB en un 42%. Para acelerar la respuesta a la TB en los países con el fin de alcanzar las metas, los Jefes de Estado celebraron en septiembre de 2018 la primera Reunión de Alto Nivel de las Naciones Unidas sobre la TB, en la que se comprometieron fehacientemente a poner fin a esta enfermedad.
WEBSITE:  https://www.who.int/campaigns/world-tb-day/world-tb-day-2019
ESPAÑOL:  https://www.who.int/es/news-room/events/detail/2019/03/24/default-calendar/world-tb-day-2019


-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

Bioaerosols and Transmission, a Diverse and Growing Community of Practice

The transmission of infectious microbes via bioaerosols is of significant concern for both human and animal health. However, gaps in our understanding of respiratory pathogen transmission and methodological heterogeneity persist. New developments have enabled progress in this domain, and one of the major turning points has been the recognition that cross-disciplinary collaborations across spheres of human and animal health, microbiology, biophysics, engineering, aerobiology, infection control, public health, occupational health, and industrial hygiene are essential. Collaborative initiatives support advances in topics such as bioaerosol behavior, dispersion models, risk assessment, risk/exposure effects, and mitigation strategies in clinical, experimental, agricultural, and other field settings. There is a need to enhance the knowledge translation for researchers, stakeholders, and private partners to support a growing network of individuals and agencies to achieve common goals to mitigate inter- and intra-species pathogen transmission via bioaerosols.
REFERENCE:
Mubareka S, et al. Bioaerosols and Transmission, a Diverse and Growing Community of Practice. Front Public Health. 2019 Feb 21;7:23. doi: 10.3389/fpubh.2019.00023. eCollection 2019. Review.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

Plants Developed by New Genetic Modification Techniques

The development of new genetic modification techniques (nGMs), also referred to as "new (breeding) techniques" in other sources, has raised worldwide discussions regarding their regulation. Different existing regulatory frameworks for genetically modified organisms (GMO) cover nGMs to varying degrees. Coverage of nGMs depends mostly on the regulatory trigger. In general two different trigger systems can be distinguished, taking into account either the process applied during development or the characteristics of the resulting product. A key question is whether regulatory frameworks either based on process- or product-oriented triggers are more advantageous for the regulation of nGM applications. We analyzed regulatory frameworks for GMO from different countries covering both trigger systems with a focus on their applicability to plants developed by various nGMs. The study is based on a literature analysis and qualitative interviews with regulatory experts and risk assessors of GMO in the respective countries. The applied principles of risk assessment are very similar in all investigated countries independent of the applied trigger for regulation. Even though the regulatory trigger is either process- or product-oriented, both triggers systems show features of the respective other in practice. In addition our analysis shows that both trigger systems have a number of generic advantages and disadvantages, but neither system can be regarded as superior at a general level. More decisive for the regulation of organisms or products, especially nGM applications, are the variable criteria and exceptions used to implement the triggers in the different regulatory frameworks. There are discussions and consultations in some countries about whether changes in legislation are necessary to establish a desired level of regulation of nGMs. We identified five strategies for countries that desire to regulate nGM applications for biosafety-ranging from applying existing biosafety frameworks without further amendments to establishing new stand-alone legislation. Due to varying degrees of nGM regulation, international harmonization will supposedly not be achieved in the near future. In the context of international trade, transparency of the regulatory status of individual nGM products is a crucial issue. We therefore propose to introduce an international public registry listing all biotechnology products commercially used in agriculture.
REFERENCE:
Eckerstorfer MF, et al. Plants Developed by New Genetic Modification Techniques-Comparison of Existing Regulatory Frameworks in the EU and Non-EU Countries. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2019 Feb 19;7:26. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2019.00026. eCollection 2019.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

#España: Plan Nacional de Biocustodia

El Consejo de Seguridad Nacional, en su reunión del día 21 de enero de 2019, ha aprobado el Plan Nacional de Biocustodia.  La Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional, aprobada por Acuerdo del Consejo de Ministros del 31 de mayo de 2013, incluyó la adopción de un «Plan Nacional de Biocustodia» entre sus objetivos. Por su parte, la Estrategia de Seguridad Nacional de 2017 incluye entre los suyos «el combatir la proliferación de armas de destrucción masiva, sus vectores de lanzamiento, materiales conexos y tecnología asociada, así como impedir su acceso a actores no estatales, y en particular a organizaciones terroristas». Para lograr este Objetivo establece como línea de acción el «fortalecer las capacidades nacionales en el área de la no proliferación mediante la aplicación de la normativa internacional y el desarrollo y actualización de la normativa nacional».
REFERENCIA:
2553 Orden PCI/168/2019, de 22 de febrero, por la que se publica el Plan Nacional de Biocustodia, aprobado por el Consejo de Seguridad Nacional.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

#OpenWHO

OpenWHO is WHO’s new interactive, web-based, knowledge-transfer platform offering online courses to improve the response to health emergencies. OpenWHO enables the Organization and its key partners to transfer life-saving knowledge to large numbers of frontline responders.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

Surrogate strains of human pathogens for field release

Surrogate microorganisms, in short surrogates, are an essential part of pathogen research. Compared to surrogates used in controlled laboratory environments, surrogates for field release are restricted by concerns about human and environmental safety. For field research of food-borne pathogens, strains of an attenuated pathogen or strains of genetically close non-pathogenic species have been used as surrogates. Genetic modification is usually performed to attenuate virulence, through for examples deletion of genes of virulence and transcriptional regulators and removal of virulence plasmids, and to facilitate detection and monitoring through observing antibiotic resistance, fluorescence, and bioluminescence. For field research of a biological warfare agent Bacillus anthracis, strains of genetically close non-pathogenic species or strains of genetically distant non-pathogenic species have been used, mostly without any genetic modification. Recently, we constructed strains of Bacillus thuringiensis as surrogates for B. anthracis, demonstrating that strain engineering could significantly enhance the utility of surrogates, and that the application of a simple genetic circuit could significantly impact surrogate safety. Thus far, enormous potential of biotechnology has not been exploited enough due to safety concerns regarding the field release of genetically engineered microorganisms. However, synthetic biology is rapidly developing, providing new concepts for biocontainment as well as ingenious genetic circuits and devices, which should be applied in future research of field-use surrogates.
REFERENCE:
Park S, Kim CH, Jeong ST, Lee SY. Surrogate strains of human pathogens for field release. Bioengineered. 2018 Jan 1;9(1):17-24. doi: 10.1080/21655979.2017.1349044. Epub 2017 Jul 26. Review.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

Prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud

Según la evidencia científica disponible, las intervenciones con mejores resultados son aquellas cuyas prácticas solo se admiten si se realizan de forma correcta, que a menudo requiere cambios estructurales y culturales de los equipos de salud. Cuando tales intervenciones no sean factibles, es necesario establecer y asegurar el cumplimiento de medidas que permitan modificar las conductas del equipo de salud y en las que se pueda mantener adherencia sostenida en el tiempo y que puedan demostrar eficacia a largo plazo.
REFERENCE:
DESCARGA:   ESPAÑOL   |    ENGLISH
Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Prevención y control de infecciones asociadas a la atención de la salud. Recomendaciones Básicas. Washington, D.C. : OPS : 2017

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

LIBRO: Epidemiología básica

Este texto es una introducción a los principios y métodos básicos de la epidemiología. Está destinado a un público amplio de profesionales de las ciencias de la salud y de las ciencias ambientales que participan en cursos de formación práctica, así como estudiantes de medicina y de otras profesiones sanitarias u otras materias que precisen conocimientos epidemiológicos. La terminología utilizada se basa fundamentalmente en el diccionario de epidemiología de Last (1995). Los objetivos de esta Epidemiología básica son:
• explicar los principios del proceso causal de las enfermedades, subrayando la importancia de los factores ambientales modificables;
• estimular la aplicación de la epidemiología a la prevención de la enfermedad y la promoción de la salud, incluida la higiene ambiental y la salud laboral;
• preparar a los profesionales de la salud para enfrentar las necesidades crecientes de cobertura de todos los aspectos de la salud de las poblaciones, garantizando el mejor uso posible de los recursos en los servicios de salud;
• estimular la buena práctica clínica mediante la introducción de los conceptos de la epidemiología clínica;
• favorecer permanentemente el interés en la epidemiología.
REFERENCIA:
DESCARGA1   |   DESCARGA2
Epidemiología básica / Robert Beaglehole, Ruth Bonita, Tord Kjellstróm. - Washington, D.C.: OPS, © 1994 (Publicación Científica ; 551) ISBN 92 75 31551 5
-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------

Disinfectant exposure among staff at a large multispecialty hospital

Hospital staff expressed health concerns after a surface disinfectant product containing hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid was introduced. We sought to determine if this product posed a health hazard.
An interviewer-administered questionnaire on work and health characteristics was completed by 163 current staff. Symptoms that improved away from work were considered work-related. Forty-nine air samples were taken for hydrogen peroxide, peracetic acid, and acetic acid. Prevalence ratios (PRs) were calculated using Poisson regression, and standardized morbidity ratios (SMRs) were calculated using nationally representative data.
Product users reported higher prevalence of work-related wheeze and watery eyes than non-users (P < .05). Workers in the department with the highest air measurements had significantly higher prevalence of watery eyes (PR, 2.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–7.05) than those in departments with lower air measurements, and they also had a >3-fold excess of current asthma (SMR, 3.47; 95% CI, 1.48–8.13) compared with the U.S. population.
This disinfectant product was associated with mucous membrane and respiratory health effects. Risks of mucous membrane irritation and asthma in health care workers should be considered in development of disinfection protocols to protect patients from hospital-acquired infections. Identification of optimal protocols that reduce worker exposures while maintaining patient safety is needed.
REFERENCE:
Casey, Megan L et al. “Health problems and disinfectant product exposure among staff at a large multispecialty hospital” American journal of infection control vol. 45,10 (2017): 1133-1138.

-----------------------------------------------------------
Sigue este Blog en Facebook y Twitter
Ayúdanos a traducir las fichas de seguridad de microorganismos.
www.seguridadbiologica.blogspot.com
-----------------------------------------------------------