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lunes, 31 de diciembre de 2018

Principles of intracellular bacterial pathogen spread from cell to cell

A subset of intracellular pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexneri, Rickettsia spp., and Burkholderia spp. disseminate within nonphagocytic cells, such as epithelial and endothelial cells, through a process referred to as cell-to-cell spread. These pathogens utilize the host cell actin cytoskeleton to move in the cytosol of infected cells and project into adjacent cells through formation of membrane protrusions. The formed protrusions resolve into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes, thereby gaining access to the cytosol of adjacent cells (Fig 1). Here, we present the general principles and summarize the underlying mechanisms supporting this bacterial dissemination process.

REFERENCE:
Weddle E, Agaisse H (2018) Principles of intracellular bacterial pathogen spread from cell to cell. PLoS Pathog 14(12): e1007380. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007380

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miércoles, 26 de diciembre de 2018

Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: Comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions

To prevent Ebola transmission, frequent handwashing is recommended in Ebola Treatment Units and communities. However, little is known about which handwashing protocol is most efficacious. We evaluated six handwashing protocols (soap and water, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS), and 0.05% sodium dichloroisocyanurate, high-test hypochlorite, and stabilized and non-stabilized sodium hypochlorite solutions) for 1) efficacy of handwashing on the removal and inactivation of non-pathogenic model organisms and, 2) persistence of organisms in rinse water. Model organisms E. coli and bacteriophage Phi6 were used to evaluate handwashing with and without organic load added to simulate bodily fluids. Hands were inoculated with test organisms, washed, and rinsed using a glove juice method to retrieve remaining organisms. Impact was estimated by comparing the log reduction in organisms after handwashing to the log reduction without handwashing. Rinse water was collected to test for persistence of organisms. Handwashing resulted in a 1.94–3.01 log reduction in E. coli concentration without, and 2.18–3.34 with, soil load; and a 2.44–3.06 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 2.71–3.69 with, soil load. HTH performed most consistently well, with significantly greater log reductions than other handwashing protocols in three models. However, the magnitude of handwashing efficacy differences was small, suggesting protocols are similarly efficacious. Rinse water demonstrated a 0.28–4.77 log reduction in remaining E. coli without, and 0.21–4.49 with, soil load and a 1.26–2.02 log reduction in Phi6 without, and 1.30–2.20 with, soil load. Chlorine resulted in significantly less persistence of E. coli in both conditions and Phi6 without soil load in rinse water (p<0.001). Thus, chlorine-based methods may offer a benefit of reducing persistence in rinse water. We recommend responders use the most practical handwashing method to ensure hand hygiene in Ebola contexts, considering the potential benefit of chlorine-based methods in rinse water persistence.
REFERENCE:
Wolfe, Marlene K et al. “Handwashing and Ebola virus disease outbreaks: A randomized comparison of soap, hand sanitizer, and 0.05% chlorine solutions on the inactivation and removal of model organisms Phi6 and E. coli from hands and persistence in rinse water” PloS one vol. 12,2 e0172734. 23 Feb. 2017, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172734

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jueves, 20 de diciembre de 2018

Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum: a life’s work on #Ebola

Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum was part of the research team that investigated the first known outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 1976. He talks to Fiona Fleck about those experiences and how he and his colleagues are using the knowledge they have built up in recent Ebola outbreaks.
REFERENCE:
Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum: a life's work on Ebola. Bull World Health Organ. 2018;96(12):804-805.

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martes, 18 de diciembre de 2018

Towards an effective poliovirus laboratory containment strategy in Nigeria

BACKGROUND: The Global Commission for the Certification of the Eradication of Poliomyelitis will declare the world free of wild poliovirus transmission when no wild virus has been found in at least 3 consecutive years, and all laboratories possessing wild poliovirus materials have adopted appropriate measures of containment. Nigeria has made progress towards poliomyelitis eradication with the latest reported WPV type 1 on 21 Aug 2016 after 2 years without any case. This milestone achievement was followed by an inventory of biomedical laboratories completed in November 2015 with the destruction of all identified infectious materials. This paper seeks to describe the poliovirus laboratory containment process in Nigeria on which an effective containment system has been built to minimize the risk of virus re-introduction into the population from the laboratories.
METHODS: A national survey of all biomedical facilities, as well as an inventory of laboratories from various sectors, was conducted from June-November 2015. National Task Force (NTF) members and staff working on polio administered an on-site questionnaire in each facility. Laboratory personnel were sensitized with all un-needed materials destroyed by autoclaving and incineration. All stakeholders were also sensitized to continue the destruction of such materials as a requirement for phase one activities.
RESULTS: A total of 20,638 biomedical facilities were surveyed with 9575 having laboratories. Thirty laboratories were found to contain poliovirus or potentially infectious materials. The 30 laboratories belonged to the ministries of health, education, defence and private organizations.
CONCLUSIONS: This article is amongst the first in Africa that relates poliovirus laboratory containment in the context of the tOPV-bOPV switch in alignment with the Global Action Plan III. All identified infectious materials were destroyed and personnel trained to continue to destroy subsequent materials, a process that needs meticulous monitoring to mitigate the risk of poliovirus re-introduction to the population.
REFERENCE:
Ticha JM, et al. Towards an effective poliovirus laboratory containment strategy in Nigeria. BMC Public Health. 2018 Dec 13;18(Suppl 4):1304. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-6181-3.

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jueves, 13 de diciembre de 2018

Próximos eventos de #bioseguridad 2019

Agenda 2019


16-ene-19 Laboratory Safety: What has been forgotten because it was “common knowledge” by experienced workers
January 16, 2019 @ 7:00 pm - 8:00 pm EST
WEBINAR
23-ene-19 Biosecurity at the Interface of Personalized Medicine, Gene Transfer, and Occupational Health
January 23, 2019 @ 11:00 am - 1:00 pm CST
WEBINAR
05-feb-19 Symposium on emergency preparedness and response
5 February 2019 - 09:00
Erasmus University Medical Center in Rotterdam, the Netherlands
28-ene-19 BSL-3 Laboratory Training
January 28, 2019 @ 9:00 am - February 1, 2019 @ 4:00 pm UTC-5
University of California Irving, USA
11-feb-19 USDA ARS 5th International Biosafety & Biocontainment Symposium: Biorisk and Facility Challenges in Agriculture
February 11, 2019 - February 14, 2019
Hilton Baltimore, Baltimore USA
25-feb-19 BSL-3 Operations & Maintenance I
February 25, 2019 @ 9:00 am - February 26, 2019 @ 4:00 pm UTC-5
UCI National BSL-3 Training Program, Irvine, CA, United States
27-feb-19 ANSI Z9.14 BSL-3 Ventilation Standard
February 27, 2019 @ 9:00 am - February 28, 2019 @ 4:00 pm UTC-5
UCI National BSL-3 Training Program, Irvine, CA, United States
03-mar-19 Principles and Practices on Biosafety
March 3, 2019 @ 8:00 am - March 8, 2019 @ 5:00 pm UTC+0
Embassy Suites by Hilton San Diego Bay Downtown, San Diego, CA United States
02-abr-19 EBSA22 Conference 2-5 April 2019
2 April 2019 - 08:30 to 5 April 2019 - 16:30
Bucharest, Romania
08-abr-19 Control of Biohazards in the Research Laboratory
April 8, 2019 - April 12, 2019
Johns Hopkins Mt. Washington Conference Center, Baltimore MD USA
02-sep-19 11 Simposio Internacional de Bioseguridad y Biocustodia 2019 (AMEXBIO)
Sep 2 to 7, 2019
Universidad de Guanajuato, Gto. México
15-nov-19 62nd Annual Biosafety and Biosecurity Conference
November 15, 2019 - November 20, 2019
Birmingham-Jefferson Convention Complex (BJCC), Birmingham, AL USA



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