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viernes, 24 de agosto de 2018

Economic implications between antibiotic use and hospital-acquired infections

OBJECTIVES: The emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance is still an unresolved problem worldwide. Recent evidence shows correlations between the volume of broad-spectrum antibiotics used in the hospital setting and the incidence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. According to this dynamic relationship, loss of antibiotic activity can be modeled as a negative externality of antibiotic consumption.
METHODS: The present study proposes to present an economic model describing the probability of antibiotic treatment failure as a function of antimicrobial use and alcohol-based hand-rub use. Furthermore, the results of recently conducted time-series analyses and cost-of-illness studies are applied to the model to determine the externalities of antibiotic consumption and alcohol-based hand-rub use with respect to the costs of hospital-acquired infections.
RESULTS: According to our calculations, the consumption of third-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones is associated with the highest negative externalities (€143 and €101, respectively) because their use has been shown to be associated with most types of hospital-acquired infections. In contrast, the use of alcohol-based hand-rub solution for hand disinfection is associated with a positive externality of 41 cents per single disinfection of the hands.
CONCLUSIONS: The externalities presented in this work represent a possible application of cost-of-illness data to quantify the impact of antibiotic use on antimicrobial resistance. In addition, the results indicate that most economic research on the topic is biased in assuming the overall use of antibiotics to be responsible for the spread of antimicrobial resistance.
REFERENCE:
Kaier K. Economic implications of the dynamic relationship between antibiotic  use and hospital-acquired infections. Value Health. 2012 Jan;15(1):87-93. doi: 10.1016/j.jval.2011.09.005. Epub 2011 Nov 6. PubMed PMID: 22264976.

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martes, 21 de agosto de 2018

N95 Day 2018 Webinar: Trending Topics in Respiratory Protection

Registration: https://niosh-connect.adobeconnect.com/n95day2018/event/event_info.html
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lunes, 20 de agosto de 2018

Alcohol Sanitizer

Fragmento
According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) hand hygiene encompasses the cleansing of your hands by using hand washing with soap and water, antiseptic hand washes, antiseptic hand rubs such as alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS), foams or gels, or surgical hand antisepsis. For many reasons, alcohol hand sanitizers are increasingly being used as disinfectants over hand washing with soap and water.  Their ease of availability, no need for water or plumbing, and their proven effectiveness in reducing microbial load are just a few. In one study, a hospital-wide, hand hygiene campaign with special emphasis on bedside, alcohol-based hand disinfection resulted sustained improvement in hand-hygiene compliance, coinciding with a reduction of nosocomial infections and MRSA transmission. The promotion of bedside, antiseptic, hand rubs largely contributed to the increase in compliance. Many other studies have demonstrated that having bedside alcohol-based solutions availabale increased compliance with hand hygiene among HCWs.
REFERENCE:
Gold NA, Avva U. Alcohol Sanitizer. [Updated 2018 Jun 23]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK513254/

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viernes, 17 de agosto de 2018

Guidance for Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus for Men

Zika virus infection can occur as a result of mosquitoborne or sexual transmission of the virus. Infection during pregnancy is a cause of fetal brain abnormalities and other serious birth defects (1,2). CDC has updated the interim guidance for men with possible Zika virus exposure who 1) are planning to conceive with their partner, or 2) want to prevent sexual transmission of Zika virus at any time (3). CDC now recommends that men with possible Zika virus exposure who are planning to conceive with their partner wait for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) before engaging in unprotected sex. CDC now also recommends that for couples who are not trying to conceive, men can consider using condoms or abstaining from sex for at least 3 months after symptom onset (if symptomatic) or their last possible Zika virus exposure (if asymptomatic) to minimize their risk for sexual transmission of Zika virus.

REFERENCE:
Polen KD, et al. Update: Interim Guidance for Preconception Counseling and Prevention of Sexual Transmission of Zika Virus for Men with Possible Zika Virus Exposure — United States, August 2018. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2018;67:868-871. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6731e2

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jueves, 16 de agosto de 2018

CDC lab training on-demand #Biosafety #CDC #laboratory


Estos cursos on-demand de aproximadamente 1 hr., son para personal de laboratorio que proporcionan certificados avalados por el CDC, que pueden usar en su currículum, con créditos P.A.C.E. y son gratuitos. Para obtener el certificado, deben completar el curso, y aprobar el examen con más de 80%. Los de bioseguridad son los siguientes:
La lista completa en: https://www.cdc.gov/labtraining/

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martes, 14 de agosto de 2018

Laboratory-acquired scrub typhus and murine typhus infections #LAIs

This study examined the literature on laboratory-acquired infections (LAIs) associated with scrub typhus (Orientia tsutsugamushi) and murine typhus (Rickettsia typhi) research to provide an evidence base for biosafety and biocontainment. Scrub typhus LAIs were documented in 25 individuals, from 1931-2000 with 8 (32%) deaths during the pre-antibiotic era. There were 35 murine typhus LAI reports and no deaths. Results indicated that highest risk activities were working with infectious laboratory animals involving significant aerosol exposures, accidental self-inoculation or bite related infections. A risk-based biosafety approach for in vitro and in vivo culture of O. tsutsugamushi and R. typhi would require only high-risk activities (animal work or large culture volumes) be performed in high containment BSL3 laboratories. We argue that relatively low risk activities including inoculation of cell cultures or the early stages of in vitro growth using low volumes/low concentrations of infectious materials can be performed safely in BSL2 laboratories within a biological safety cabinet.
REFERENCE:
Blacksell SD, et al; Laboratory-acquired scrub typhus and murine typhus infections: The argument for risk-based approach to biosafety requirements for Orientia tsutsugamushi and Rickettsia typhi laboratory activities, Clinical Infectious Diseases ciy675, https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy675

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lunes, 13 de agosto de 2018

Semanas nacionales de vacunación en México

Las Semanas Nacionales de Salud tienen como objetivo aplicar las vacunas que necesitan los menores de 5 años para completar su esquema básico, así como las que se administran de forma complementaria a los adolescentes y adultos.
En el país desde 1980 se iniciaron las Semanas Nacionales de Vacunación que en un principio se llamaron fases intensivas de vacunación, su objetivo principal es proteger la salud de la niñez.
Primera Semana Nacional de Salud
Se lleva a cabo a finales de febrero y principios de marzo y tiene como objetivo principal la aplicación de la vacuna Sabin a todos los menores de 5 años, con lo que se previene la polio. También se refuerza la aplicación de las vacunas anti rotavirus, anti neumococo, pentavalente, BCG y hepatitis B a menores de 1 año de edad, entre otras actividades.
Segunda Semana Nacional de Salud
Se lleva a cabo a finales de mayo y principios de junio y tiene como objetivo principal la aplicación del refuerzo de la vacuna Sabin a todos los menores de 5 años, con lo que se previene la polio.
Tercera Semana Nacional de Salud
Se lleva a cabo a principios del mes de octubre y tiene como objetivo principal la aplicación de la vacuna Triple viral a todos los menores de 6 y 7 años, con lo que se previenen los casos de sarampión, rubéola y paperas. También se refuerza la aplicación de las vacunas BCG, pentavalente A, Hepatitis B, rotavirus y en este año en especial se aplica la que previene el virus del papiloma humano.

Esquema de vacunación:

Vacuna Enfermerdad que previene A quién se aplica
Sabin Poliomielitis Niños y niñas menores de 5 años
Antihepatitis B Hepatitis B Niños y niñas menores de 5 años y adolescentes
Pentavalente acelular Difteria, Tosferina, Tétanos, Poliomelitis y H. Influenzae Niños y niñas menores 5 años
DPT Difteria, Tosferina y Tétanos Niños y niñas de 4 años
Rotavirus Gastroenteritis causada por rotavirus Niños y niñas menores de 1 año
Neumococica conjugada Infecciones por neumococo Niños y niñas de 2, 4 y 12 meses
Triple Viral SRP Sarampión, Rubéola y Parotiditis Niños y niñas de 1 y 6 años
TD Tétanos y Difteria Embarazadas, hombres y mujeres mayores de 12 años
SR Sarampión, rubéola Hombres y mujeres de 1 a 4 años
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miércoles, 8 de agosto de 2018

Pathogen Risk Assessment guideline

The Pathogen Risk Assessment guideline was developed by the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC) and the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) as part of a series of electronic publications that expand upon the biosafety and biosecurity concepts discussed in the current edition of the Canadian Biosafety Handbook (CBH), the companion document to the Canadian Biosafety Standard (CBS). It describes how to conduct a pathogen risk assessment to evaluate the risks associated with human or animal pathogens, toxins, or other regulated infectious material. This guideline is intended to assist organizations in meeting the requirements specified in the CBS, but should not be interpreted as requirements. Organizations may choose alternate approaches to meet the requirements specified in the CBS.

Conducting a biosecurity risk assessment
This guideline describes best practices for conducting a biosecurity risk assessment in an organization where human or animal pathogens, toxins, or other regulated infectious material are handled or stored. The biosecurity risks associated with the handling and storing of pathogens and toxins can be minimized through the application of appropriate mitigation measures identified through the risk assessment process.

REFERENCIAS
  1. Pathogen Risk Assessment
  2. Conducting a biosecurity risk assessment.
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viernes, 3 de agosto de 2018

8º Curso de animales de laboratorio.






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