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lunes, 30 de julio de 2018

Biosecurity practices on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Performance and perceptions of farmers

This paper describes the level of adoption of biosecurity practices performed on Australian commercial chicken meat and layer farms and farmer-perceived importance of these practices. On-farm interviews were conducted on 25 free range layer farms, nine cage layer farms, nine barn layer farms, six free range meat chicken farms and 15 barn meat chicken farms in the Sydney basin bioregion and South East Queensland. There was a high level of treatment of drinking water across all farm types; town water was the most common source. In general, meat chicken farms had a higher level of adoption of biosecurity practices than layer farms. Cage layer farms had the shortest median distance between sheds (7.75m) and between sheds and waterbodies (30m). Equipment sharing between sheds was performed on 43% of free range meat chicken farms compared to 92% of free range layer farms. There was little disinfection of this shared equipment across all farm types. Footbaths and visitor recording books were used by the majority of farms for all farm types except cage layer farms (25%). Wild birds in sheds were most commonly reported in free range meat chicken farms (73%). Dogs and cats were kept across all farm types, from 56% of barn layer farms to 89% of cage layer farms, and they had access to the sheds in the majority (67%) of cage layer farms and on the range in some free range layer farms (44%). Most biosecurity practices were rated on average as 'very important' by farmers. A logistic regression analysis revealed that for most biosecurity practices, performing a practice was significantly associated with higher perceived farmer importance of that biosecurity practice. These findings help identify farm types and certain biosecurity practices with low adoption levels. This information can aid decision-making on efforts used to improve adoption levels.
REFERENCE:
Scott AB, et al. Biosecurity practices on Australian commercial layer and meat chicken farms: Performance and perceptions of farmers. PLoS One. 2018 Apr 18;13(4):e0195582. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195582. eCollection 2018. PubMed PMID: 29668707.

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jueves, 26 de julio de 2018

Desinfectantes para manos a base de alcohol / Alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHS)

Según el Centro para el Control de Enfermedades (CDC), la higiene de manos incluye la limpieza de las manos mediante el lavado de manos con agua y jabón, lavados antisépticos para manos, desinfectantes antisépticos para manos como desinfectantes para manos a base de alcohol (ABHS), espumas o geles, o antisepsia quirúrgica de la mano. Por muchas razones, los desinfectantes para manos con alcohol se usan cada vez más como desinfectantes en vez de lavarse las manos con agua y jabón. Su facilidad de disponibilidad, sin necesidad de agua o fontanería, y su probada eficacia para reducir la carga microbiana son solo algunas. En un estudio, una campaña de higiene de manos en todo el hospital, con especial énfasis en la desinfección de manos a base de alcohol, produjo una mejora sostenida en el cumplimiento de la higiene de manos, coincidiendo con una reducción de las infecciones nosocomiales y la transmisión de MRSA. La promoción de la cabecera de la cama, antisépticos, frotamientos de manos contribuyó en gran medida al aumento del cumplimiento. Muchos otros estudios han demostrado que disponer de soluciones basadas en el alcohol a pie de cama aumenta el cumplimiento de la higiene de manos entre los trabajadores de la salud. Sin embargo, es importante tener en cuenta que la eficacia del desinfectante para manos con alcohol depende de qué y cuánto producto se use, la técnica adecuada y la consistencia del uso. También hay situaciones donde estos productos no son ideales, por ejemplo, para prevenir la propagación de ciertas infecciones o cuando las manos están muy sucias y la carga bacteriana es demasiado alta.
REFERENCIA:
Gold NA, Avva U. Alcohol Sanitizer. 2018 Jun 23. StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-.

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lunes, 23 de julio de 2018

Fast-Growing Engineered Microbes: New Concerns for Gain-of-Function Research?


Research on fast-growing microbes holds promise for many industrial applications, including shortening test and trial times in research and development stages and reducing the operation costs for production. Such microbes can be obtained either by selecting naturally occurring variants or via metabolic engineering approaches, either eliminating 'unnecessary' or adding necessary pathways affecting growth speed in the cell. Here, we review recent research and development of engineered fast-growing strains in industrial biotechology, with a special focus on vaccine production using (synthetic biology) engineered pathogenic strains. We will discuss whether this represents a security concern and whether the industrial biotech sector needs to pay more attention to issues of Gain-of-Function (GoF) while developing and harnessing these fast-growing microbes. We will also shed a light on the use of in-built biosafety circuits as a way to control the propagation of fast-growing strains, including their capacity to survive in the environment. Other possible GoF concerns raised by the publication of research results in this field will be also addressed. In conclusion, judging from the current development from the field, assessing the potential GoF risks on engineered fast-growing microbes does not lead to a clear generalized outcome. We argue that fast growing strains need to be evaluated in combination with their wild type and engineered characteristics, and require always a case-by-case assessment. Monitoring the progress of the field and proactively raising awareness on the GoF issues among the scientists are important for the further development of the field.
REFERENCE:
Pei L, Schmidt M. Fast-Growing Engineered Microbes: New Concerns for Gain-of-Function Research? Front Genet. 2018 Jun 29;9:207. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00207. eCollection 2018. Review.


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miércoles, 18 de julio de 2018

Oropharyngeal #Tularemia from Freshly Pressed Grape Must

In high-income countries, oropharyngeal tularemia is associated with hunting or eating infected game or drinking contaminated water.1,2 We describe a cluster of cases of oropharyngeal tularemia that appears to have been caused by the consumption of freshly pressed grape must by grape harvesters volunteering at a vineyard in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, in October 2016. 
Reference: 
N Engl J Med 2018; 379:197-199. https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc1800353


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martes, 10 de julio de 2018

Priones, prionoides y enfermedades por mal plegamiento de proteínas / Prions, prionoids and protein misfolding disorders #PMD

Prion diseases are progressive, incurable and fatal neurodegenerative conditions. The term ‘prion’ was first nominated to express the revolutionary concept that a protein could be infectious. We now know that prions consist of PrPSc, the pathological aggregated form of the cellular prion protein PrPC. Over the years, the term has been semantically broadened to describe aggregates irrespective of their infectivity, and the prion concept is now being applied, perhaps overenthusiastically, to all neurodegenerative diseases that involve protein aggregation. Indeed, recent studies suggest that prion diseases (PrDs) and protein misfolding disorders (PMDs) share some common disease mechanisms, which could have implications for potential treatments. Nevertheless, the transmissibility of bona fide prions is unique, and PrDs should be considered as distinct from other PMDs.

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jueves, 5 de julio de 2018

Transmisión iatrogénica de priones

Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD): recognized causes and worldwide occurrence.

FRAGMENTO:
Iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is simply CJD (most likely sporadic CJD) that is transmitted from one person to another by medical or surgical treatment (table 2) [20]. It is important to note that all forms of prion disease are potentially transmissible, even, remarkably, autosomal dominantly inherited genetic diseases. In addition, there are increasing concerns that variant CJD will lead to significant secondary transmission, with 2 reported cases of probable blood transmission [2122].
REFERENCE:
Richard Knight; Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease: A Rare Cause of Dementia in Elderly Persons, Clinical Infectious Diseases, Volume 43, Issue 3, 1 August 2006, Pages 340–346,

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#Prions: Beyond a Single Protein

Since the term protein was first coined in 1838 and protein was discovered to be the essential component of fibrin and albumin, all cellular proteins were presumed to play beneficial roles in plants and mammals. However, in 1967, Griffith proposed that proteins could be infectious pathogens and postulated their involvement in scrapie, a universally fatal transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in goats and sheep. Nevertheless, this novel hypothesis had not been evidenced until 1982, when Prusiner and coworkers purified infectious particles from scrapie-infected hamster brains and demonstrated that they consisted of a specific protein that he called a “prion.” Unprecedentedly, the infectious prion pathogen is actually derived from its endogenous cellular form in the central nervous system. Unlike other infectious agents, such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi, prions do not contain genetic materials such as DNA or RNA. The unique traits and genetic information of prions are believed to be encoded within the conformational structure and posttranslational modifications of the proteins. Remarkably, prion-like behavior has been recently observed in other cellular proteins—not only in pathogenic roles but also serving physiological functions. The significance of these fascinating developments in prion biology is far beyond the scope of a single cellular protein and its related disease.
REFERENCIA:
Das AS, Zou W-Q. Prions: Beyond a Single Protein. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2016;29(3):633-658.

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lunes, 2 de julio de 2018

The Characterization of #Surgical Smoke from Various Tissues and Its Implications for #Occupational #Safety

Electrosurgery produces surgical smoke. Different tissues produce different quantities and types of smoke, so we studied the particle characteristics of this surgical smoke in order to analyze the implications for the occupational health of the operation room personnel. We estimated the deposition of particulate matter (PM) from surgical smoke on the respiratory tract of operation room personnel using clinically relevant tissues from Finnish landrace porcine tissues including skeletal muscle, liver, subcutaneous fat, renal pelvis, renal cortex, lung, bronchus, cerebral gray and white matter, and skin. In order to standardize the electrosurgical cuts and smoke concentrations, we built a customized computer-controlled platform. The smoke particles were analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI), which measures the concentration and aerodynamic size distribution of particles with a diameter between 7 nm and 10 μm. There were significant differences in the mass concentration and size distribution of the surgical smoke particles depending on the electrocauterized tissue. Of the various tissues tested, liver yielded the highest number of particles. In order to better estimate the health hazard, we propose that the tissues can be divided into three distinct classes according to their surgical smoke production: 1) high-PM tissue for liver; 2) medium-PM tissues for renal cortex, renal pelvis, and skeletal muscle; and 3) low-PM tissues for skin, gray matter, white matter, bronchus, and subcutaneous fat.
REFERENCE:
Karjalainen, Markus et al. “The Characterization of Surgical Smoke from Various Tissues and Its Implications for Occupational Safety.” Ed. Sachiko Matsuzaki. PLoS ONE 13.4 (2018): e0195274. PMC. Web. 4 June 2018.

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