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viernes, 31 de octubre de 2014

Happy "Día de Muertos" (Day of the Deaths)

       For our english-speaking visitors. Happy Halloween!. Here in  México is "Día de Muertos" (Day of the Deaths), on November 1st, and 2nd. This year we will be walking around deaths. momies, vampires, and Catrinas...
       Literary Calaveras (skulls)  are written as epitaphs for the living. It´s a fun  way to remember the deaths. In local newspapers publish Calaveras from living politicians, also a way to make fun of them.  Many calaveras were written about the individuals in a given profession. Butchers, teachers, priests, housekeepers, artists, mail carriers, and shopkeepers were all satirized by writers of calaveras. I´m giving you one...  People goes to the pantheons, to sing, eat, and remember their love ones. Also they dress up, cook special food and big parties. It´s a nice time to visit México.

jueves, 30 de octubre de 2014

Control of #ebola virus disease - firestone district, Liberia, 2014

On March 30, 2014, the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW) of Liberia alerted health officials at Firestone Liberia, Inc. (Firestone) of the first known case of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) inside the Firestone rubber tree plantation of Liberia. The patient, who was the wife of a Firestone employee, had cared for a family member with confirmed Ebola in Lofa County, the epicenter of the Ebola outbreak in Liberia during March-April 2014. To prevent a large outbreak among Firestone's 8,500 employees, their dependents, and the surrounding population, the company responded by 1) establishing an incident management system, 2) instituting procedures for the early recognition and isolation of Ebola patients, 3) enforcing adherence to standard Ebola infection control guidelines, and 4) providing differing levels of management for contacts depending on their exposure, including options for voluntary quarantine in the home or in dedicated facilities. In addition, Firestone created multidisciplinary teams to oversee the outbreak response, address case detection, manage cases in a dedicated unit, and reintegrate convalescent patients into the community. The company also created a robust risk communication, prevention, and social mobilization campaign to boost community awareness of Ebola and how to prevent transmission. During August 1-September 23, a period of intense Ebola transmission in the surrounding areas, 71 cases of Ebola were diagnosed among the approximately 80,000 Liberians for whom Firestone provides health care (cumulative incidence = 0.09%). Fifty-seven (80%) of the cases were laboratory confirmed; 39 (68%) of these cases were fatal. Aspects of Firestone's response appear to have minimized the spread of Ebola in the local population and might be successfully implemented elsewhere to limit the spread of Ebola and prevent transmission to health care workers (HCWs).

Reaves EJ, et al. Control of ebola virus disease - firestone district, Liberia, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Oct 24;63(42):959-65.
How Firestone Liberia’s unique approaches helped stem the spread of the ebola virus
Liberian Rubber Farm Becomes Sanctuary Against Ebola
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martes, 28 de octubre de 2014

Preguntas sobre #ébola

Las preguntas se recibirán hasta el Viernes 31 de Octubre, 2014.

El formato para las preguntas ha sido desactivado. Gracias por participar!

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Cluster of #ebola cases among liberian and u.s. Health care workers in an ebola treatment unit and adjacent hospital - Liberia, 2014

The ongoing Ebola virus disease (Ebola) epidemic in West Africa, like previous Ebola outbreaks, has been characterized by amplification in health care settings and increased risk for health care workers (HCWs), who often do not have access to appropriate personal protective equipment. In many locations, Ebola treatment units (ETUs) have been established to optimize care of patients with Ebola while maintaining infection control procedures to prevent transmission of Ebola virus. These ETUs are considered essential to containment of the epidemic. In July 2014, CDC assisted the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of Liberia in investigating a cluster of five Ebola cases among HCWs who became ill while working in an ETU, an adjacent general hospital, or both. No common source of exposure or chain of transmission was identified. However, multiple opportunities existed for transmission of Ebola virus to HCWs, including exposure to patients with undetected Ebola in the hospital, inadequate use of personal protective equipment during cleaning and disinfection of environmental surfaces in the hospital, and potential transmission from an ill HCW to another HCW. No evidence was found of a previously unrecognized mode of transmission. Prevention recommendations included reinforcement of existing infection control guidance for both ETUs and general medical care settings, including measures to prevent cross-transmission in co-located facilities

Forrester JD et al. Cluster of Ebola Cases Among Liberian and U.S. Health Care Workers in an Ebola Treatment Unit and Adjacent Hospital — Liberia, 2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2014 Oct 17;63(41):925-9.
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lunes, 27 de octubre de 2014

Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports

Because information on biological agents in the workplace is lacking, biological hazard analyses at the workplace to securely recognize the harmful factors with biological basis are desperately needed. This review concentrates on literatures published after 2010 that attempted to detect biological hazards to humans, especially workers, and the efforts to protect them against these factors. It is important to improve the current understanding of the health hazards caused by biological factors at the workplace. In addition, this review briefly describes these factors and provides some examples of their adverse health effects. It also reviews risk assessments, protection with personal protective equipment, prevention with training of workers, regulations, as well as vaccinations.

Rim KT, Lim CH. Biologically hazardous agents at work and efforts to protect workers' health: a review of recent reports. Saf Health Work. Jun 2014; 5(2): 43–52.
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sábado, 18 de octubre de 2014

Consolidated #Ebola Virus Disease Preparedness Checklist

The Consolidated Checklist for Ebola Virus Disease Preparedness is based on efforts by various national and international institutions, including WHO, CDC and UN OCHA.
It identifies 10 key components and tasks for both countries and the international community that should be completed within 30, 60 and 90 days respectively from the date of issuing this list. Minimal required resources in terms of equipment and material as well as human resources are defined. Key reference documents such as guidelines, training manuals and guidance notes will help the technical experts to implement required action in the key components.

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viernes, 17 de octubre de 2014

OSHA: Cleaning and Decontamination of #Ebola on Surfaces

Guidance for Workers and Employers in Non-Healthcare/Non-Laboratory Settings
Workers tasked with cleaning surfaces that may be contaminated with Ebola virus, the virus that causes Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), must be protected from exposure. Employers are responsible for ensuring that workers are protected from exposure to Ebola and that workers are not exposed to harmful levels of chemicals used for cleaning and disinfection.

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jueves, 16 de octubre de 2014

Mobile phones carry the personal microbiome of their owners

Most people on the planet own mobile phones, and these devices are increasingly being utilized to gather data relevant to our personal health, behavior, and environment. During an educational workshop, we investigated the utility of mobile phones to gather data about the personal microbiome — the collection of microorganisms associated with the personal effects of an individual. We characterized microbial communities on smartphone touchscreens to determine whether there was significant overlap with the skin microbiome sampled directly from their owners. We found that about 22% of the bacterial taxa on participants’ fingers were also present on their own phones, as compared to 17% they shared on average with other people’s phones. When considered as a group, bacterial communities on men’s phones were significantly different from those on their fingers, while women’s were not. Yet when considered on an individual level, men and women both shared significantly more of their bacterial communities with their own phones than with anyone else’s. In fact, 82% of the OTUs were shared between a person’s index and phone when considering the dominant taxa (OTUs with more than 0.1% of the sequences in an individual’s dataset). Our results suggest that mobile phones hold untapped potential as personal microbiome sensors.

Meadow JF, et al. Mobile phones carry the personal microbiome of their owners. PeerJ. 2014; 2: e447.
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martes, 14 de octubre de 2014

Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation

Purpose of review. Hand hygiene and isolation are basic, but very effective, means of preventing the spread of pathogens in healthcare. Although the principle may be straightforward, this review highlights some of the controversies regarding the implementation and efficacy of these interventions.
Recent findings. Hand hygiene compliance is an accepted measure of quality and safety in many countries. The evidence for the efficacy of hand hygiene in directly reducing rates of hospital-acquired infections has strengthened in recent years, particularly in terms of reduced rates of staphylococcal sepsis. Defining the key components of effective implementation strategies and the ideal method(s) of assessing hand hygiene compliance are dependent on a range of factors associated with the healthcare system. Although patient isolation continues to be an important strategy, particularly in outbreaks, it also has some limitations and can be associated with negative effects. Recent detailed molecular epidemiology studies of key healthcare-acquired pathogens have questioned the true efficacy of isolation, alone as an effective method for the routine prevention of disease transmission.
Summary. Hand hygiene and isolation are key components of basic infection control. Recent insights into the benefits, limitations and even adverse effects of these interventions are important for their optimal implementation.
Keywords: alcohol-based hand rub, hand hygiene, hospital acquired infections, isolation, WHO
G. Khai Lin Huang, et al.  Back to basics: hand hygiene and isolation. Curr Opin Infect Dis. Aug 2014; 27(4): 379–389.
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lunes, 13 de octubre de 2014

Día Mundial del Lavado de Manos, Octubre 15

Este 15 de Octubre, la Organización Mundial de la Salud, en conjunto con la UNICEF celebran el Día Mundial del Lavado de Manos. Esta es una oportunidad para recordar a todos la importancia del Lavado de Manos. Infórmate y distribuye la información acerca de la importancia del lavado de manos en:
Descarga los posters y manuales de la campaña de la UNICEF AQUI.

This course and promotional materials review key concepts of hand hygiene and other standard precautions to prevent healthcare-associated infections.
Promotional materials (Posters).
A variety of resources including guidelines for providers, patient empowerment materials, the latest technological advances in hand hygiene adherence measurement, frequently asked questions, and links to promotional and educational tools.
All health-care workers require clear and comprehensive training and education on the importance of hand hygiene, the "My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene" approach and the correct procedures for handrubbing and handwashing.
Hygiene refers to behaviors that can improve cleanliness and lead to good health, such as frequent hand washing, face washing, and bathing with soap and water. In many areas of the world, practicing personal hygiene etiquette is difficult due to lack of clean water and soap. Many diseases can be spread if the hands, face, or body are not washed appropriately at key times.

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#VIDEOS: Lávate las manos, Octubre 15, #IWashMyHands #ebola


viernes, 10 de octubre de 2014

Contact tracing during an #ebola outbreak

Persons in close contact with Ebola cases (alive or dead) are at higher risk of infection. All potential contacts of Ebola cases should be identified and closely observed for 21 days from the last day of exposure. Contacts that develop illness should be immediately isolated to prevent further transmission of infection. An effective system for contact tracing should be established at the onset of the outbreak. Early involvement and full cooperation of affected communities is critical for successful contact tracing.
This document provides guidance for establishing and conducting contact tracing during filovirus disease outbreaks. The guidance notes are based on extensive field experience in filovirus disease outbreak response in the WHO African region. The notes are intended for frontline epidemiologists, surveillance officers, health workers and other volunteers involved in contact tracing. National and sub-national emergency management committees and rapid response teams require these guidelines to plan, implement and monitor contact tracing.National emergency management committees are advised to adapt these guidance notes to the local context in their application

Contact tracing during an #ebola outbreak
CDC poster: What is contact tracing?
Australasian Contract Tracing Manual
Development of a risk assessment tool for contact tracing people after contact with infectious patients while travelling by bus or other public ground transport: a Delphi consensus approach
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jueves, 9 de octubre de 2014

Detailed Hospital Checklist for #Ebola Preparedness
Every hospital should ensure that it can detect a patient with Ebola, protect healthcare workers so they can safely care for the patient, and respond in a coordinated fashion. Many of the signs and symptoms of Ebola are non-specific and similar to those of many common infectious diseases, as well as other infectious diseases with high mortality rates. Transmission can be prevented with appropriate infection control measures.
In order to enhance our collective preparedness and response efforts, this checklist highlights key areas for hospital staff -- especially hospital emergency management officers, infection control practitioners, and clinical practitioners -- to review in preparation for a person with Ebola arriving at a hospital for medical care. The checklist provides practical and specific suggestions to ensure your hospital is able to detect possible Ebola cases, protect your employees, and respond appropriately.
While we are not aware of any domestic Ebola cases, now is the time to prepare, as it is possible that individuals with Ebola in West Africa may travel to your city, exhibit signs and symptoms of Ebola, and present to facilities.


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Practicability of Hygienic Wrapping of Touchscreen Operated Mobile Devices in a Clinical Setting

Background. To prove effectiveness of wrapping tablet computers in order to reduce microbiological contamination and to evaluate whether a plastic bag-covered tablet leads to impaired user satisfaction or touchscreen functionality.
Materials and Methods. Within a period of 11 days 115 patients were provided with a tablet computer while waiting for their magnetic resonance imaging examination. Every day the contamination of the surface of the tablet was determined before the first and after the final use. Before the device was handed over to a patient, it was enclosed in a customized single-use plastic bag, which was analyzed for bacterial contamination after each use. A questionnaire was applied to determine whether the plastic bag impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen.
Results. Following the use by patients the outside of the plastic bags was found to be contaminated with various bacteria (657.5 ± 368.5 colony forming units/day); some of them were potentially pathogenic. In contrast, the plastic bag covered surface of the tablet was significantly less contaminated (1.7 ± 1.9 colony forming units/day). Likewise, unused plastic bags did not show any contamination. 11% of the patients reported problems with the functionality of the touchscreen. These patients admitted that they had never used a tablet or a smartphone before.
Conclusions. Tablets get severely contaminated during usage in a clinical setting. Wrapping with a customized single-use plastic bag significantly reduces microbiological contamination of the device, protects patients from the acquisition of potentially pathogenic bacteria and hardly impairs the user satisfaction and the functionality of the touchscreen.

Hammon M, et al. (2014) Practicability of Hygienic Wrapping of Touchscreen Operated Mobile Devices in a Clinical Setting. PLoS ONE 9(9): e106445. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0106445
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lunes, 6 de octubre de 2014

Review on #Ebola vaccines

Introduction. Ebolaviruses cause severe viral hemorrhagic fever in humans and non-human primates, with case fatality rates of up to 90%. Currently, neither a specific treatment nor a vaccine licensed for use in humans is available. However, a number of vaccine candidates have been developed in the last decade that are highly protective in non-human primates, the gold standard animal model for Ebola hemorrhagic fever.
Areas covered. This review analyzes a number of scenarios for the use of ebolavirus vaccines, discusses the requirements for ebolavirus vaccines in these scenarios, and describes current ebolavirus vaccines. Among these vaccines are recombinant Adenoviruses, recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, recombinant Human Parainfluenza viruses and virus-like particles. Interestingly, one of these vaccine platforms, based on recombinant Vesicular Stomatitis viruses, has also demonstrated post-exposure protection in non-human primates.
Expert opinion. The most pressing remaining challenge is now to move these vaccine candidates forward into human trials and towards licensure. In order to achieve this, it will be necessary to establish the mechanisms and correlates of protection for these vaccines, and to continue to demonstrate their safety, particularly in potentially immunocompromised populations. However, already now there is sufficient evidence that, from a scientific perspective, a vaccine protective against ebolaviruses is possible.

Hoenen T, Groseth A & Feldmann H. Current Ebola vaccines. Expert Opin Biol Ther 2012; 12(7): 859–872.
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Aviso preventivo de viaje por #ebola a países africanos

La Secretaria de Salud Federal, a través del Unidad de Inteligencia Epidemiológica y Sanitaria emite el siguiente aviso preventivo de viaje ante los brotes de Enfermedad por Virus del Ébola, en GUINEA, LIBERIA, SIERRA LEONA, NIGERIA Y SENEGAL en el continente Africano, actualizado al 03 de Octubre de 2014.
La Secretaría de Salud reitera la recomendación de evitar viajes no esenciales a Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leona, Nigeria y Senegal debido a la evolución del brote de Enfermedad por el Virus del Ébola.

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jueves, 2 de octubre de 2014

People, planet and profits: the case for greening operating rooms

Green Healthcare
Over the past 40 years, the health care industry has undergone radical changes in the types of products it uses and its waste disposal practices. In the 1980s, concerns about the spread of blood-borne diseases prompted a shift from reusable to single-use devices, resulting in increases in waste production.
The most recent environmental data on health care in Canada show that in 2008 the sector generated about 1.46% of Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions and in 2001 was a source of 1% of total solid waste. Canadian hospital activities were the second most energy-intensive activity in the commercial and institutional sector in 2008, consuming the equivalent annual energy of 440 000 Canadian homes. In 2007, US health care facilities contributed 8% of total greenhouse gas emissions, disposed of more than 4 billion pounds (1 lb = 0.45 kg) of waste and were the second-largest contributor to landfills after the food industry.
Few Canadian hospitals have published their ecological footprints (a calculation of the bioproductive land and water required to sustain a population). However, in 2001, Lions Gate Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia, reported a footprint of 2841 hectares (ha) or 719 times its actual area. In 2006, London Health Sciences Centre in London, Ontario, reported a footprint of 63 074 global hectares or about 384 times its actual area.
It is ironic that our efforts in hospitals to improve the health of patients contribute detrimentally to the health of the ecosystem. In 2009, the World Health Organization emphasized that hospitals have responsibilities in making health care more sustainable.
Kagoma Y, et al. People, planet and profits: the case for greening operating rooms. CMAJ. Nov 20, 2012; 184(17): 1905–1911.
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