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jueves, 31 de enero de 2019

Código Sanitario para los Animales Terrestres (Código Terrestre)

Las normas consignadas en el Código Sanitario para los Animales Terrestres (Código Terrestre) buscan mejorar la sanidad y el bienestar animal al igual que la salud pública veterinaria en todo el mundo. Con este fin, prevé textos normativos para garantizar el comercio internacional seguro de animales terrestres (mamíferos, reptiles, aves y abejas) y de sus productos derivados. Las autoridades veterinarias de los países importadores y exportadores deberán referirse a las medidas sanitarias que en él figuran durante las actividades de detección temprana, notificación y control de agentes patógenos con el fin de evitar su transmisión a los animales y, en caso de enfermedades zoonóticas, a las personas, así como su diseminación a través de los intercambios internacionales de animales y de productos derivados, impidiendo al mismo tiempo la instauración de barreras sanitarias injustificadas.
Las medidas sanitarias del Código Terrestre han sido adoptadas oficialmente por la Asamblea Mundial de Delegados de los Miembros de la OIE. La vigésima séptima edición incorpora las modificaciones del Código Terrestre aprobadas en la 86.ª Sesión general de mayo de 2018.

CONSULTA EN LINEA EN ESPAÑOL

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martes, 29 de enero de 2019

Biosafety Cabinet Selection, Installation, Use, Lifespan and Decommissioning

Class II biosafety cabinets are somewhere in-between—specifically, they contain partial barrier systems that rely on the movement of air to provide personnel, environmental, and product protection. These are covered in NSF/ANSI 49, which has just been revised. The current edition of this American National Standard is NSF/ANSI 49-2018: Biosafety Cabinetry – Design, Construction, Performance, And Field Certification. NSF/ANSI 49-2018, like its predecessor, applies to Class II, or laminar flow, biosafety cabinets designed to minimize inherent hazards in work with agents assigned to biosafety levels 1, 2, 3, or 4. It outlines basic guidelines for their design, construction, and performance. BSCs designed and tested under NSF/ANSI 49-2018 guidance are assured reliable operation, durability and structural stability, cleanability, limitations on noise level, illumination, vibration, and motor/blower performance.

Read more at the ANSI Blog: NSF/ANSI 49-2018: Biosafety Cabinets – Design, Construction, Performance, And Field Certification https://blog.ansi.org/?p=160368
Annex E, free of charge HERE

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miércoles, 23 de enero de 2019

Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions - Respiratory Protection against Volcanic Ash

Inhalation of ash can be of great concern for affected communities, during and after volcanic eruptions. Governmental and humanitarian agencies recommend and distribute a variety of respiratory protection (RP), commonly surgical masks but, also, industry-certified N95-style masks. However, there is currently no evidence on how wearable they are within affected populations or how protective wearers perceive them being against volcanic ash (which will influence the likelihood of uptake of recommended interventions). Volunteers living near Mt. Sinabung, Sumatra, Indonesia, participated in a field wearability study, which included a high-efficiency mask certified to industry standards (N95-equiv.); a standard, pleated surgical mask (Surgical); a Basic flat-fold mask (Flat-fold), and the surgical mask plus a scarf tied over the top (Surgical Plus) to improve fit. These types of RP had all performed well during earlier laboratory filtration efficiency tests. The N95-equiv. mask had performed significantly better than the other RP in the subsequent total inward leakage volunteer trials, whilst the Flat-fold and Surgical masks performed poorly, letting in a third of PM2.5 particles (data published elsewhere). Thirty volunteers wore each mask for a 15-min walk before being asked to rate the comfort, breathability and perceived protection and fit of each. After wearing all of the masks, volunteers compared and identified their preferred type of protection. The feedback received from the volunteers suggested that the Surgical Plus and N95-equiv. masks were rated as being significantly hotter and more humid than other masks. The Flat-fold was rated to have better breathability than the other masks. The N95-equiv. mask was ranked as providing the best level of effectiveness of the four masks tested. Ultimately, when asked which type of mask they would choose to wear during ashfall, 33% selected the Flat-fold mask due to its comfort and simplicity, with the Surgical Plus being the least likely to be chosen of the four tested. The study findings are of benefit to agencies who need to make informed decisions on the procurement and distribution of RP for use by those affected in future eruptions and the provision of advice to communities on their usage.
REFERENCE
Galea, Karen S et al. “Short Communication: Health Interventions in Volcanic Eruptions-Community Wearability Assessment of Respiratory Protection against Volcanic Ash from Mt Sinabung, Indonesia” International journal of environmental research and public health vol. 15,11 2359. 25 Oct. 2018, doi:10.3390/ijerph15112359

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lunes, 21 de enero de 2019

Performance of N95 FFRs Against Combustion and NaCl Aerosols in Dry and Moderately Humid Air: Manikin-based Study

Objectives: The first objective of this study was to evaluate the penetration of particles generated from combustion of plastic through National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)certified N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) using a manikin-based protocol and compare the data to the penetration of NaCl particles. The second objective was to investigate the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the filtration performance of N95 FFRs.
Methods: Two NIOSH-certified N95 FFRs (A and B) were fully sealed on a manikin headform and challenged with particles generated by combustion of plastic and NaCl particles. The tests were performed using two cyclic flows [with mean inspiratory flow (MIF) rates = 30 and 85 l min−1, representing human breathing under low and moderate workload conditions] and two RH levels (≈20 and ≈80%, representing dry and moderately humid air). The total and size-specific particle concentrations inside (Cin) and outside (Cout) of the respirators were measured with a condensation particle counter and an aerosol size spectrometer. The penetration values (Cin/Cout) were calculated after each test.
Results: The challenge aerosol, RH, MIF rate, and respirator type had significant (P < 0.05) effects on the performance of the manikin-sealed FFR. Its efficiency significantly decreased when the FFR was tested with plastic combustion particles compared to NaCl aerosols. For example, at RH ≈80% and MIF = 85 l min−1, as much as 7.03 and 8.61% of combustion particles penetrated N95 respirators A and B, respectively. The plastic combustion particles and gaseous compounds generated by combustion likely degraded the electric charges on fibers, which increased the particle penetration. Increasing breathing flow rate or humidity increased the penetration (reduced the respirator efficiency) for all tested aerosols. The effect of particle size on the penetration varied depending on the challenge aerosol and respirator type. It was observed that the peak of the size distribution of combustion particles almost coincided with their most penetrating particle size, which was not the case for NaCl particles. This finding was utilized for the data interpretation.
Conclusions: N95 FFRs have lower filter efficiency when challenged with contaminant particles generated by combustion, particularly when used under high humidity conditions compared to NaCl particles.
REFERENCE:
Gao, Shuang et al. “Performance of N95 FFRs Against Combustion and NaCl Aerosols in Dry and Moderately Humid Air: Manikin-based Study” Annals of occupational hygiene vol. 60,6 (2016): 748-60.

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viernes, 18 de enero de 2019

Self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment

Background: Healthcare workers (HCWs) use personal protective equipment (PPE) in Ebola virus disease (EVD) situations. However, preventing the contamination of HCWs and the environment during PPE removal crucially requires improved strategies. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of three PPE ensembles, namely, Hospital Authority (HA) Standard Ebola PPE set (PPE1), Dupont Tyvek Model, style 1422A (PPE2), and HA isolation gown for routine patient care and performing aerosol-generating procedures (PPE3) to prevent EVD transmission by measuring the degree of contamination of HCWs and the environment.
Methods: A total of 59 participants randomly performed PPE donning and doffing. The trial consisted of PPE donning, applying fluorescent solution on the PPE surface, PPE doffing of participants, and estimation of the degree of contamination as indicated by the number of fluorescent stains on the working clothes and environment. Protocol deviations during PPE donning and doffing were monitored.
Results: PPE2 and PPE3 presented higher contamination risks than PPE1. Environmental contaminations such as those originating from rubbish bin covers, chairs, faucets, and sinks were detected. Procedure deviations were observed during PPE donning and doffing, with PPE1 presenting the lowest overall deviation rate (%) among the three PPE ensembles (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Contamination of the subjects’ working clothes and surrounding environment occurred frequently during PPE doffing. Procedure deviations were observed during PPE donning and doffing. Although PPE1 presented a lower contamination risk than PPE2 and PPE3 during doffing and protocol deviations, the design of PPE1 can still be further improved. Future directions should focus on designing a high-coverage-area PPE with simple ergonomic features and on evaluating the doffing procedure to minimise the risk of recontamination. Regular training for users should be emphasised to minimise protocol deviations, and in turn, guarantee the best protection to HCWs.
REFERENCE:
Suen, Lorna K P et al. “Self-contamination during doffing of personal protective equipment by healthcare workers to prevent Ebola transmission” Antimicrobial resistance and infection control vol. 7 157. 22 Dec. 2018, doi:10.1186/s13756-018-0433-y

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miércoles, 16 de enero de 2019

Aerosol infection of Balb/c mice with eastern equine encephalitis virus; susceptibility and lethality.

BACKGROUND: Eastern equine encephalitis virus is an alphavirus that naturally cycles between mosquitoes and birds or rodents in Eastern States of the US. Equine infection occurs by being bitten by cross-feeding mosquitoes, with a case fatality rate of up to 75% in humans during epizootic outbreaks. There are no licensed medical countermeasures, and with an anticipated increase in mortality when exposed by the aerosol route based on anecdotal human data and experimental animal data, it is important to understand the pathogenesis of this disease in pursuit of treatment options. This report details the clinical and pathological findings of mice infected with EEEV by the aerosol route, and use as a model for EEEV infection in humans.
METHODS: Mice were exposed by the aerosol route to a dose range of EEEV to establish the median lethal dose. A pathogenesis study followed whereby mice were exposed to a defined dose of virus and sacrificed at time-points thereafter for histopathological analysis and virology.
RESULTS: Clinical signs of disease appeared within 2 days post challenge, culminating in severe clinical signs within 24 h, neuro-invasion and dose dependent lethality. EEEV was first detected in the lung 1 day post challenge, and by day 3 peak viral titres were observed in the brain, spleen and blood, corresponding with severe meningoencephalitis, indicative of encephalitic disease. Lethality follows severe neurological signs, and may be linked to a threshold level of virus replication in the brain. Effective medical countermeasures for EEEV may necessitate early inoculation to inhibit infection of the brain in zoonotic incidents, and be able to traverse the blood-brain barrier to sufficiently interrupt replication in the brain in cases of aerosol infection.
CONCLUSIONS: There is little human data on the hazard posed by aerosol infection with encephalitic alphaviruses, and use of EEEV as a bioweapon may be by the aerosol route. A well characterized model of aerosol exposure that recapitulates some of the most severe human clinical features is necessary to evaluate the efficacy of putative medical countermeasures, and to increase our understanding about how this route of infection induces such rapid neuro-invasion and resulting disease.
REFERENCE:
Phelps AL, et al. Aerosol infection of Balb/c mice with eastern equine encephalitis virus; susceptibility and lethality. Virol J. 2019 Jan 5;16(1):2. doi: 10.1186/s12985-018-1103-7.

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lunes, 14 de enero de 2019

Phylogeography, Transmission, and Viral Proteins of Nipah Virus

Nipah virus (NiV), a zoonotic paramyxovirus belonging to the genus Henipavirus, is classified as a Biosafety Level-4 pathogen based on its high pathogenicity in humans and the lack of available vaccines or therapeutics. Since its initial emergence in 1998 in Malaysia, this virus has become a great threat to domestic animals and humans. Sporadic outbreaks and person-to-person transmission over the past two decades have resulted in hundreds of human fatalities. Epidemiological surveys have shown that NiV is distributed in Asia, Africa, and the South Pacific Ocean, and is transmitted by its natural reservoir, Pteropid bats. Numerous efforts have been made to analyze viral protein function and structure to develop feasible strategies for drug design. Increasing surveillance and preventative measures for the viral infectious disease are urgently needed.
REFERENCE:
Sun, Bangyao et al. “Phylogeography, Transmission, and Viral Proteins of Nipah Virus” Virologica Sinica vol. 33,5 (2018): 385-393.

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viernes, 11 de enero de 2019

Study of the micro-climate and bacterial distribution in the deadspace of N95 filtering face respirators

It is common for people to use N95 filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) in daily life, especially in locations where particulate matter (PM2.5) concentration is rising. Wearing N95 FFRs is helpful to reduce inhalation of PM2.5. Although N95 FFRs block at least 95% of particles from the atmosphere, the deadspace of N95 FFRs could be a warm, wet environment that may be a perfect breeding ground for bacterial growth. This work studies the micro-climate features including the temperature distribution and water vapor condensation in the deadspace of an N95 FFR using the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. Then, the temperature and relative humidity inside the same type of N95 FFR are experimentally measured. There is a good agreement between the simulation and experimental results. Moreover, an experiment is conducted to study the distribution of bacteria sampled from the inner surface of an N95 FFR after donning.
REFERENCE:
Yang, Quan et al. “Study of the micro-climate and bacterial distribution in the deadspace of N95 filtering face respirators” Scientific reports vol. 8,1 17382. 26 Nov. 2018, doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35693-w

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jueves, 10 de enero de 2019

Monitoring and evaluation of mice maintained in different biosafety level laboratories

High-level biosafety laboratories (BSL), such as BSL-3 and BSL-4, which deal with high infectivity and virulence pathogens, have become indispensable. Mice are frequently used in animal BSL (ABSL) to establish animal models for infection and to evaluate in vivo immune responses. A project of monitoring and evaluation on the physiology and immune status of mice housed in different ABSL labs was performed in the ABSL-2/3/4 labs of Kunming National High-level Biosafety Research Center, China. Female Kunming mice were housed in the ABSL-2/3/4 labs for 1 month, and mouse behavior, body physiology/immune status, pulmonary immune status and respiratory bacteria composition were evaluated and compared among mice from the different labs. Mice settled in their new housing environment of the different labs after transfer and gained weight steadily. Blood hematology testing, serum cytokine/chemokine profiles and blood/spleen lymphocyte constitutions were comparable between the ABSL-2/3/4 labs. The numbers of different pulmonary leukocytes in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were at baseline levels in mice from the ABSL-2/3/4 labs. Diversity and dominance of mice respiratory bacteria were semblable among the ABSL-2/3/4 labs. Our results confirm the stability of physiology and immune status of Kunming mice maintained in different ABSL-2/3/4 labs for at least 1 month.
REFERENCE:
Guo, Lei et al. “Monitoring and evaluation of the immune status of female Kunming mice maintained in different biosafety level laboratories” Biology open vol. 7,12 bio035006. 7 Nov. 2018, doi:10.1242/bio.035006

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martes, 8 de enero de 2019

Biohazard levels

Biohazard levels, more commonly known as “biological safety levels” or “biosafety levels” are classifications of safety precautions which are needed to be applied in the clinical microbiology laboratory depending on specific organisms handled in every laboratory procedure. Developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), this principle provides a way for medical laboratory scientists and other lab personnel adequately identify and limit any biological hazards which will further decrease the risk in the laboratory. Aside from biosafety, biohazard levels are also indirectly used to support the principle of biosecurity, which is aimed at preventing the use of organisms as harmful biological agents.

REFERENCE:
Bayot ML, Bhimji SS. Biohazard Levels. [Updated 2018 Dec 9]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018 Jan-. Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK535351/

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miércoles, 2 de enero de 2019

Genetically modified pigs are protected from classical swine fever virus

Classical swine fever (CSF) caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV) is one of the most detrimental diseases, and leads to significant economic losses in the swine industry. Despite efforts by many government authorities to stamp out the disease from national pig populations, the disease remains widespread. Here, antiviral small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were selected and then inserted at the porcine Rosa26 (pRosa26) locus via a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knock-in strategy. Finally, anti-CSFV transgenic (TG) pigs were produced by somatic nuclear transfer (SCNT). Notably, in vitro and in vivo viral challenge assays further demonstrated that these TG pigs could effectively limit the replication of CSFV and reduce CSFV-associated clinical signs and mortality, and disease resistance could be stably transmitted to the F1-generation. Altogether, our work demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi) technology combining CRISPR/Cas9 technology offered the possibility to produce TG animal with improved resistance to viral infection. The use of these TG pigs can reduce CSF-related economic losses and this antiviral strategy may be useful for future antiviral research.

REFERENCE:
Xie Z, Pang D, Yuan H, Jiao H, Lu C, Wang K, et al. (2018) Genetically modified pigs are protected from classical swine fever virus. PLoS Pathog 14(12): e1007193. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1007193

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