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jueves, 31 de marzo de 2016

Microbial aerosol liberation from soiled textiles isolated during routine residuals handling in a modern health care setting

BACKGROUND: A wide variety of specialty textiles are used in health care settings for bedding, clothing, and privacy. The ability of textiles to host or otherwise sequester microbes has been well documented; however, their reciprocal potential for liberating airborne bacteria remains poorly characterized. In response, a multi-season survey of bacterial bioaerosols was conducted in the origin and terminus of residual paths which are specifically designed to isolate soiled hospital textiles as they are moved to laundering. This survey used conventional optical particle counting which incorporated multi-channel fluorescence in conjunction with molecular phylogenetic analyses to characterize the bioaerosols liberated during soiled textile storage--immediately before and after the occupation of a modern hospital. Although outfitted with a HEPA filtration system, the number of airborne particles presenting fluorescing optical signatures consistent with airborne bacteria and fungi significantly increased in textile holding rooms soon after the hospital's commissioning, even though these isolated residual areas rarely host personnel. The bioaerosol liberated during textile storage was characterized using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) genes. Gene copies recovered by quantitative PCR from aerosol collected in co-located impingers were consistent with fluorescence gated optical particle counting.
RESULTS: The relative abundance patterns of proximal bacterial bioaerosol were such that the air in the origin and terminus of textile storage rooms could not be differentiated once the hospital began processing soiled linens. Genes from microbes typically associating with human skin, feces, and hair--Staphylococcus, Propionibacteria, Corynebacteria, Lactobacillus, and Streptococcus spp.--dominated the aerosol abundance profiles in textile holding rooms, which were generally far less diverse than communities recovered from surfaces in patient rooms.
CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that aerosol partitioning from the routine handling of soiled textiles can contribute to airborne exposures in the health care environment.
REFERENCE:
Handorean A, et al. Microbial aerosol liberation from soiled textiles isolated during routine residuals handling in a modern health care setting. Microbiome. 2015 Dec 9;3:72. doi: 10.1186/s40168-015-0132-3.

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lunes, 28 de marzo de 2016

Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of #Ascaris suum Eggs

Ascaris suum eggs in various conditions. 
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.
REFERENCE:
Oh KS, et al. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs. Korean J Parasitol. 2016 Feb;54(1):103-7. doi: 10.3347/kjp.2016.54.1.103. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

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viernes, 18 de marzo de 2016

Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks

Objective: To assess the relationship of bacterial and fungal contamination on used surgical masks worn by the hospital personnel and microbial air quality in their working wards.
Methods: This is a cross-sectional study of 230 used surgical masks collected from 214 hospital personnel, and 215 indoor air samples collected from their working wards to culture for bacterial and fungal counts. This study was carried out at the hospital in Bangkok. Group or genus of isolated bacteria and fungi were preliminarily identified by Gram’s stain and lacto-phenol cotton blue. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficient at the significant level of p<0.050.
Results: Means and standard deviation of bacterial and fungal contamination on inside area of the used masks were 47 ± 56 and 15 ± 9 cfu/ml/piece, and on outside area were 166 ± 199 and 34 ± 18 cfu/ml/piece, respectively, p<0.001. The bacterial and fungal contamination on used masks from hospital personnel working in the male and female medical wards and out-patient department, as well as the bacterial and fungal counts of the indoor air sample collected from the same area were relatively higher than the other wards. The predominant isolated bacteria and fungi contaminated on inside and outside areas of the used masks and air samples were similar (Staphylococcus spp. and Aspergillus spp.; respectively). For its relationship, results found that bacterial and fungal counts in air samples showed significantly positive correlation with the bacterial contamination load on outside area of the used masks, r=0.16, p=0.018 and r=0.21, p=0.003, respectively.
Conclusion: High bacterial contamination on outside area of the used masks was demonstrated, and it showed a significant correlation with microbial air quality of working wards.

REFERENCE:
Luksamijarulkul, P et al. “Microbial Contamination on Used Surgical Masks among Hospital Personnel and Microbial Air Quality in Their Working Wards: A Hospital in Bangkok.” Oman Medical Journal 29.5 (2014): 346–350. PMC. Web. 18 Mar. 2016.
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miércoles, 16 de marzo de 2016

Cursos para el 8º Simposio de Bioseguridad #SIBB16



Inscripciones:http://amexbio.wildapricot.org/Inscripciones
Posted by Asociación Mexicana de Bioseguridad A.C. (AMEXBIO) on miércoles, 16 de marzo de 2016

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lunes, 14 de marzo de 2016

Guía técnica de limpieza, desinfección y esterilización

La limpieza, desinfección y esterilización de superficies, aparatos e instrumental, son procesos que están orientados a la minimización de la transmisión de infecciones en el entorno de los centros asistenciales, por lo que se incluyen dentro de las Estrategias de Seguridad para la protección, tanto de los usuarios como de los profesionales. La adecuada realización de estos procesos permitirá elevar el nivel de calidad de la asistencia que presta el Servicio de Salud.
Los trabajadores del sistema sanitario deben poseer conocimientos acerca de la correcta utilización del material sanitario y de los productos empleados en su descontaminación según el marco legal que establece la directiva 93/42/CEE de productos sanitarios, de obligado cumplimiento en nuestro país. Esta directiva europea queda transcrita en España en el Real Decreto 1591/2009 del 16 de octubre en el que se regulan los productos sanitarios.
Según la legislación vigente, cada vez que se limpian, se desinfectan, o esterilizan productos sanitarios se forma parte de una cadena, por ello se adquiere una responsabilidad legal que obliga a que se garantice la correcta ejecución de estos procesos.
El presente documento además de servir de guía de consulta, tiene la finalidad de normalizar las actuaciones que en limpieza, desinfección y esterilización se realicen en todo el ámbito de la Atención Primaria de Asturias.

DESCARGAR:  Guía técnica de limpieza, desinfección y esterilización

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lunes, 7 de marzo de 2016

Using a mHealth Tutorial Application for training Healthcare workers in Nigeria

BACKGROUND: The Ebola epidemic exposed the weak state of health systems in West Africa and their devastating effect on frontline health workers and the health of populations. Fortunately, recent reviews of mobile technology demonstrate that mHealth innovations can help alleviate some health system constraints such as balancing multiple priorities, lack of appropriate tools to provide services and collect data, and limited access to training in health fields such as mother and child health, HIV/AIDS and sexual and reproductive health. However, there is little empirical evidence of mHealth improving health system functions during the Ebola epidemic in West Africa.
METHODS: We conducted quantitative cross-sectional surveys in 14 health facilities in Ondo State, Nigeria, to assess the effect of using a tablet computer tutorial application for changing the knowledge and attitude of health workers regarding Ebola virus disease.
RESULTS: Of 203 participants who completed pre- and post-intervention surveys, 185 people (or 91%) were female, 94 participants (or 46.3%) were community health officers, 26 people (13 %) were nurses/midwives, 8 people (or 4%) were laboratory scientists and 75 people (37%) belonged to a group called others. Regarding knowledge of Ebola: 178 participants (or 87.7%) had foreknowledge of Ebola before the study. Further analysis showed an 11% improvement in average knowledge levels between pre- and post-intervention scores with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) recorded for questions concerning the transmission of the Ebola virus among humans, common symptoms of Ebola fever and whether Ebola fever was preventable. Additionally, there was reinforcement of positive attitudes of avoiding the following: contact with Ebola patients, eating bush meat and risky burial practices as indicated by increases between pre- and post-intervention scores from 83 to 92%, 57 to 64% and 67 to 79%, respectively. Moreover, more participants (from 95 to 97%) reported a willingness to practice frequent hand washing and disinfecting surfaces and equipment following the intervention, and more health workers were willing (from 94 to 97%) to use personal protective equipment to prevent the transmission of Ebola.
CONCLUSIONS: The modest improvements in knowledge and reported attitudinal change toward Ebola virus disease suggests mHealth tutorial applications could hold promise for training health workers and building resilient health systems to respond to epidemics in West Africa.

REFERENCE:
Otu, Akaninyene et al. “Using a mHealth Tutorial Application to Change Knowledge and Attitude of Frontline Health Workers to Ebola Virus Disease in Nigeria: A before-and-after Study.” Human Resources for Health 14 (2016): 5. PMC. Web. 16 Feb. 2016.

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jueves, 3 de marzo de 2016

SEMINARIO: Uso adecuado del cloro como desinfectante.

CUPO LLENO PARA EL 11 DE MARZO. 
Invitamos a participar en nuestro Seminario "Uso adecuado del cloro como desinfectante". El hipoclorito de sodio y el etanol son dos de las sustancias químicas más comunes de la vida diaria y en áreas hospitalarias utilizadas como agentes desinfectantes. Sin embargo, muchas de las personas involucradas en el uso o preparación de estas sustancias, desconocen los conceptos básicos para su uso. Al término del seminario de 1 hora las personas conocerán las correctas concentraciones de uso, las limitaciones de uso, los mecanismos de acción y la correcta preparación de estas sustancias para su uso. 
Usted puede elegir entre cualquiera de las fechas para participar:

Título: Uso adecuado del cloro y etanol como desinfectantes
Profesor titular:  Dra. Klintsy J. Torres Hernández
Objetivo: Al final de la sesión, el alumno podrá:
• Describir el método de desinfección con hipoclorito de sodio (cloro).
• Describir los  mecanismos del cloro
• Conocer las limitaciones del uso del cloro.
• Preparar soluciones de cloro para la desinfección.
Fechas: Inscríbete en cualquiera de las siguientes fechas:
  - Viernes 11 de marzo de 2016
  - Viernes 12 de Agosto de 2016
  - Viernes 11 de Noviembre de 2016.
Horario:  11 hrs.
Duración:  1 hora
Dirigido a: Estudiantes, médicos, técnicos de laboratorio, profesionistas y personas que manejan materiales biológicos. Abierto al público en general.
Organizan: Asociación Mexicana de Bioseguridad A.C. y el Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias
Cupo máximo: 80 Personas
Costo: Sin costo
Inscripciones: Registro a partir de Febrero de 2016.

Dirección: Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Respiratorias
Calzada de Tlalpan 4502
Col. Sección XVI
Tlalpan DF 14080
México



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