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lunes, 27 de abril de 2015

REVIEW: Outbreaks Associated with Contaminated Antiseptics and Disinfectants

Multiple nosocomial outbreaks have resulted from inadequate antisepsis or disinfection. Inadequate skin antisepsis may result from a lack of intrinsic antimicrobial activity of the antiseptic, a resistant pathogen, overdilution of the antiseptic, or the use of a contaminated antiseptic. The inadequate disinfection of medical devices or environmental surfaces may result from a lack of intrinsic antimicrobial activity of the disinfectant, an incorrect choice of a disinfectant, a resistant pathogen, overdilution of the disinfectant, an inadequate duration of disinfection, a lack of contact between the disinfectant and the microbes, or the use of a contaminated disinfectant. Editorials have noted that contaminated antiseptics and disinfectants have been the occasional vehicles of hospital infections for more than 50 years. This paper concisely reviews nosocomial outbreaks associated with the use of a microbiologically contaminated germicide and focuses on the currently recommended germicides.

REFERENCIA:
Weber D.J. et al. Outbreaks Associated with Contaminated Antiseptics and Disinfectants. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. December 2007 vol. 51 no. 12 4217-4224
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lunes, 13 de abril de 2015

Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the #Ebola Virus Makona Variant.

Background: The current disease outbreak caused by the Ebola virus Makona variant (EBOV/Mak) has led to unprecedented morbidity and lethality given its geographic reach and sustained transmission. Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol are well-accepted decontamination agents, however little published evidence supports the selection of appropriate concentrations and contact times. The present study addresses the environmental robustness of EBOV/Mak and evaluates the effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite and ethanol as disinfectants.
Methods: EBOV/Mak was suspended in a simulated organic soil load and dried onto surfaces. Viability was measured at 1 hour, 24 hours, 72 hours, and 192 hours. For the evaluation of disinfectants, EBOV/Mak in a simulated organic soil was dried onto stainless steel carriers and disinfected with 0.01% (v/v), 0.1% (v/v), 0.5% (v/v) and 1% (v/v) sodium hypochlorite solutions or 67% (v/v) ethanol at contact times of 1, 5 or 10 minutes.
Results: EBOV/Mak persisted longer on steel and plastic surfaces (192 hours) than cotton (<24 hours). Dilute sodium hypochlorite (0.01% and 0.1%) showed little antiviral action, whereas 0.5% and 1% sodium hypochlorite solutions demonstrated recoverable virus at one minute but sterilized surfaces in five minutes. Disinfection with 67% ethanol did not fully clear infectious virions from 3/9 carriers at 1 minute but sterilized all carriers at 5 and 10 minutes.
Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite and ethanol effectively decontaminate EBOV/Mak suspended in a simulated organic load; however, selection of concentration and contact time proves critical.

REFERENCIA:
Cook BWM, et al. Evaluating Environmental Persistence and Disinfection of the Ebola Virus Makona VariantViruses. 2015; 7(4):1975-1986.
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Biorisk management: Laboratory biosecurity guidance #WHO


The present document aims to expand the laboratory biosecurity concepts introduced in Laboratory Safety Manual 2004 (LBM3), and to strike a balance between the long-known biosafety procedures and practices described in LBM3 and the more recently introduced and broader biosecurity concepts. It further introduces the overarching "biorisk management" approach that has resulted from careful thinking, comprehensive study of prevailing practices and recommendations, review of international norms and standards, and relevant ethical considerations Shortcomings currently observed in a number of settings are discussed, and practical solutions are proposed.
The document is intended for the use of relevant national regulatory authorities, laboratory directors (laboratory managers) and laboratory workers, all of whom play key roles in the field of biosciences and in public health in general. 

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Manual de #bioseguridad en el laboratorio de #tuberculosis

Laboratory biosafety is the process of applying a combination of administrative controls, containment principles, practices and procedures, safety equipment, emergency preparedness, and facilities to enable laboratory staff to work safely with potentially infectious microorganisms; biosafety also aims at preventing unintentional exposure to pathogens or their accidental release. This manual describes the minimum biosafety measures that should be implemented at the different levels of tuberculosis (TB) testing laboratories to reduce the risk of a laboratory-acquired infection.

MANUAL EN ESPAÑOL
ENGLISH MANUAL
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jueves, 2 de abril de 2015

BSL-3 Laboratory User Training Program at NUITM-KEMRI

Pathogens handled in a Biosafety Level 3 (BSL-3) containment laboratory pose significant risks to laboratory staff and the environment. It is therefore necessary to develop competency and proficiency among laboratory workers and to promote appropriate behavior and practices that enhance safety through biosafety training. Following the installation of our BSL-3 laboratory at the Center for Microbiology Research-Kenya Medical Research Institute in 2006, a biosafety training program was developed to provide training on BSL-3 safety practices and procedures. The training program was developed based on World Health Organization specifications, with adjustments to fit our research activities and biosafety needs. The program is composed of three phases, namely initial assessment, a training phase including theory and a practicum, and a final assessment. This article reports the content of our training program.
REFERENCE:
Bundi M, et al. BSL-3 Laboratory User Training Program at NUITM-KEMRI. Trop Med Health. 2014 Dec;42(4):171-6.
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