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lunes, 25 de diciembre de 2017

NOM-003-SEGOB-2011, Señales y avisos para protección civil.- Colores, formas y símbolos a utilizar.

La experiencia indica que la correcta aplicación de esta Norma Oficial Mexicana, contribuye a mejorar las condiciones de seguridad en instalaciones y sitios en los que, conforme a leyes, reglamentos y normatividad aplicable en materia de prevención de riesgos, debe implementarse un sistema de señalización sobre protección civil, en beneficio de la población que concurre o labora en ellos.

REFERENCIA:
NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-003-SEGOB-2011, Señales y avisos para protección civil.- Colores, formas y símbolos a utilizar.


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jueves, 14 de diciembre de 2017

Lessons to be Learned from #Biosafety Incidents in the USA

During recent months, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced the occurrence of three major biosafety incidents, raising serious concern about biosafety and biosecurity guideline implementation in the most prestigious agencies in the United States: the CDC, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Federal Drug Administration (FDA). These lapses included: a) the mishandling of Bacillus anthracis spores potentially exposing dozens of employees to anthrax; b) the shipment of low pathogenic influenza virus unknowingly cross-contaminated with a highly pathogenic strain; and c) an inventory lapse of hundreds of samples of biological agents, including six vials of variola virus kept in a cold storage room for decades, unnoticed. In this review we present the published data on these events, report the CDC inquiry's main findings, and discuss the key lessons to be learnt to ensure safer scientific practice in biomedical and microbiological service and research laboratories.

REFERENCE:
Weiss S, Yitzhaki S, Shapira SC. Lessons to be Learned from Recent Biosafety Incidents in the United States. Isr Med Assoc J. 2015 May;17(5):269-73. Review. PubMed PMID: 26137650.

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lunes, 11 de diciembre de 2017

Enhancing Surveillance and Diagnostics in Anthrax-Endemic Countries

Naturally occurring anthrax disproportionately affects the health and economic welfare of poor, rural communities in anthrax-endemic countries. However, many of these countries have limited anthrax prevention and control programs. Effective prevention of anthrax outbreaks among humans is accomplished through routine livestock vaccination programs and prompt response to animal outbreaks. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention uses a 2-phase framework when providing technical assistance to partners in anthrax-endemic countries. The first phase assesses and identifies areas for improvement in existing human and animal surveillance, laboratory diagnostics, and outbreak response. The second phase provides steps to implement improvements to these areas. We describe examples of implementing this framework in anthrax-endemic countries. These activities are at varying stages of completion; however, the public health impact of these initiatives has been encouraging. The anthrax framework can be extended to other zoonotic diseases to build on these efforts, improve human and animal health, and enhance global health security.
REFERENCE:
Vieira, Antonio R. et al. “Enhancing Surveillance and Diagnostics in Anthrax-Endemic Countries.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 23.Suppl 1 (2017): S147–S153. PMC. Web. 9 Dec. 2017.

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lunes, 4 de diciembre de 2017

Shelf-Life of Chlorine Solutions Recommended in Ebola Virus Disease Response

In Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreaks, it is widely recommended to wash living things (handwashing) with 0.05% (500 mg/L) chlorine solution and non-living things (surfaces, personal protective equipment, dead bodies) with 0.5% (5,000 mg/L) chlorine solution. Chlorine solutions used in EVD response are primarily made from powdered calcium hypochlorite (HTH), granular sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC), and liquid sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), and have a pH range of 5–11. Chlorine solutions degrade following a reaction highly dependent on, and unusually sensitive to, pH, temperature, and concentration. We determined the shelf-life of 0.05% and 0.5% chlorine solutions used in EVD response, including HTH, NaDCC, stabilized NaOCl, generated NaOCl, and neutralized NaOCl solutions. Solutions were stored for 30 days at 25, 30, and 35°C, and tested daily for chlorine concentration and pH. Maximum shelf-life was defined as days until initial concentration fell to <90% of initial concentration in ideal laboratory conditions. At 25–35°C, neutralized-NaOCl solutions (pH = 7) had a maximum shelf-life of a few hours, NaDCC solutions (pH = 6) 2 days, generated NaOCl solutions (pH = 9) 6 days, and HTH and stabilized NaOCl solutions (pH 9–11) >30 days. Models were developed for solutions with maximum shelf-lives between 1–30 days. Extrapolating to 40°C, the maximum predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% NaDCC solutions were 0.38 and 0.82 hours, respectively; predicted shelf-life for 0.05% and 0.5% generated NaOCl solutions were >30 and 5.4 days, respectively. Each chlorine solution type offers advantages and disadvantages to responders, as: NaDCC is an easy-to-import high-concentration effervescent powder; HTH is similar, but forms a precipitate that may clog pipes; and, NaOCl solutions can be made locally, but are difficult to transport. We recommend responders chose the most appropriate source chlorine compound for their use, and ensure solutions are stored at appropriate temperatures and used or replaced before expiring.
REFERENCIA:
Iqbal, Qais et al. “Shelf-Life of Chlorine Solutions Recommended in Ebola Virus Disease Response.” Ed. Vincent Jacobus Munster. PLoS ONE 11.5 (2016): e0156136.


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