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miércoles, 30 de mayo de 2018

Agents of Change: The Role of Healthcare Workers in the Prevention of Nosocomial and Occupational Tuberculosis

Healthcare workers (HCWs) play a central role in global tuberculosis (TB) elimination efforts but their contributions are undermined by occupational TB. HCWs have higher rates of latent and active TB than the general population due to persistent occupational TB exposure, particularly in settings where there is a high prevalence of undiagnosed TB in healthcare facilities and TB infection control (TB-IC) programmes are absent or poorly implemented. Occupational health programmes in high TB burden settings are often weak or non-existent and thus data that record the extent of the increased risk of occupational TB globally are scarce. HCWs represent a limited resource in high TB burden settings and occupational TB can lead to workforce attrition. Stigma plays a role in delayed diagnosis, poor treatment outcomes and impaired wellbeing in HCWs who develop TB. Ensuring the prioritization and implementation of TB-IC interventions and occupational health programmes, which include robust monitoring and evaluation, is critical to reduce nosocomial TB transmission to patients and HCWs. The provision of preventive therapy for HCWs with latent TB infection can also prevent progression to active TB. Unlike other patient groups, HCWs are in a unique position to serve as agents of change to raise awareness, advocate for necessary resource allocation and implement TB-IC interventions, with appropriate support from dedicated TB-IC officers at the facility and national TB programme level. Students and community health workers (CHWs) must be engaged and involved in these efforts. Nosocomial TB transmission is an urgent public health problem and adopting rights-based approaches can be helpful. However, these efforts cannot succeed without increased political will, supportive legal frameworks and financial investments to support HCWs in efforts to decrease TB transmission.
REFERENCE:
Nathavitharana RR, et al. Agents of Change: The Role of Healthcare Workers in the Prevention of Nosocomial and Occupational Tuberculosis. Presse Med. 2017 Mar; 46(2 Pt 2): e53–e62.

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lunes, 28 de mayo de 2018

A Curriculum-Based Approach to Teaching Biosafety Through eLearning

Anyone working in biosafety capacity enhancement faces the challenge of ensuring that the impact of a capacity enhancing activity continues and becomes sustainable beyond the depletion of funding. Many training efforts face the limitation of one-off events: they only reach those people present at the time. It becomes incumbent upon the trainees to pass on the training to colleagues as best they can, whilst the demand for the training never appears to diminish. However, beyond the initial effort to establish the basic content, repeating capacity enhancement events in different locations is usually not economically feasible. Also, the lack of infrastructure and other resources needed to support a robust training programme hinder operationalizing a “train-the-trainer” approach to biosafety training. One way to address these challenges is through the use of eLearning modules that can be delivered online, globally, continuously, at low cost, and on an as-needed basis to multiple audiences. Once the modules are developed and peer-reviewed, they can be maintained on a remote server and made available to various audiences through a password-protected portal that delivers the programme content, administers preliminary and final exams, and provides the administrative infrastructure to register users and track their progress through the modules. Crucial to the implementation of such an eLearning programme is an approach in which the modules are intentionally developed together as a cohesive curriculum. Once developed, such a curriculum can be released as a stand-alone programme for the training of governmental risk assessors and regulators or used as accredited components in post-graduate degree programmes in biosafety, at minimal cost to the government or university. Examples from the portfolio of eLearning modules developed by the International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) are provided to demonstrate these key features.
REFERENCE:
NDOLO DO, et al. A Curriculum-Based Approach to Teaching Biosafety Through eLearning. Bioeng Biotechnol. 2018; 6: 42.

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jueves, 24 de mayo de 2018

#WebinarAMEXBIO: Un viaje al SIBB18. Temas y perfiles del 10° Simposio

#WebinarAMEXBIO
Un viaje al SIBB18: Temas y perfiles del  10° Simposio
Viernes 25 de mayo de 2018
13:00 hrs., Cd. de México  
Registro gratuito. Cupo limitado. No se emiten constancias
Registro por internet en: https://goo.gl/JzmSjN 
Descargue la App para escuchar este webinar AQUI.
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Defining the sizes of airborne particles that mediate influenza transmission in ferrets

Epidemics and pandemics of influenza are characterized by rapid global spread mediated by non-mutually exclusive transmission modes. The relative significance between contact, droplet, and airborne transmission is yet to be defined, a knowledge gap for implementing evidence-based infection control measures. We devised a transmission chamber that separates virus-laden particles by size and determined the particle sizes mediating transmission of influenza among ferrets through the air. Ferret-to-ferret transmission was mediated by airborne particles larger than 1.5 µm, consistent with the quantity and size of virus-laden particles released by the donors. Onward transmission by donors was most efficient before fever onset and may continue for 5 days after inoculation. Multiple virus gene segments enhanced the transmissibility of a swine influenza virus among ferrets by increasing the release of virus-laden particles into the air. We provide direct experimental evidence of influenza transmission via droplets and fine droplet nuclei, albeit at different efficiency.
REFERENCE:
Zhou, Jie et al. “Defining the Sizes of Airborne Particles That Mediate Influenza Transmission in Ferrets.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115.10 (2018): E2386–E2392. PMC. Web. 18 May 2018.

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miércoles, 23 de mayo de 2018

Hospital-acquired malaria infections in the European Union

Executive summary:
Between January 2016 and April 2018, six sporadic hospital transmissions of malaria were identified in the European Union (EU). Although uncommon, hospital transmission of malaria has been described previously. While the countries reporting these six cases (i.e. Germany, Greece, Italy and Spain) have not observed an increase in the number of sporadic hospital-acquired cases of malaria since January 2016, the concomitant occurrence of these cases in four countries makes the overall event unusual. The mode(s) of transmission have not been determined for any of the cases. This rapid risk assessment presents the context, details investigations into the cases and offers options for prevention and control. 
According to the scientific literature, the following modes of transmission should be taken into account in the investigation of hospital-acquired malaria:

  • Parenteral introduction of blood that contains parasite-infected erythrocytes from one infectious individual to another patient during healthcare procedures;
  • Blood transfusion, or bone marrow or organ transplant from a malaria-infected patient;
  • Accidental contact of blood containing parasite-infected erythrocytes with an open wound.

Malaria transmission in a hospital can also be vector-borne, when a malaria-infected mosquito bites a hospitalised patient. According to the literature, investigations are not always conclusive and entomological investigations may fail to identify rare events of vector-borne transmission such as transmission in hospital settings, airport malaria or luggage malaria.
Clinicians must be aware of the possibility of hospital-acquired malaria in hospitalised or recently discharged patients who develop an unexplained fever or a malaria-like clinical syndrome, especially if their hospital admission coincided with that of another patient admitted with malaria.
Healthcare providers should be aware that hospital transmission of malaria is rare but possible, irrespective of the Plasmodium species involved. However, hospital transmission has almost always been associated with P. falciparum . Patients with malaria should always be considered infectious by the parenteral route.
Prevention of transmission in hospitals requires that standard precautions are strictly implemented, including safe injection practices that prevent the sharing of patient care devices or equipment which may be contaminated by patient blood. Transmission of blood-borne pathogens is linked to the sharing of glucose monitoring, capillary blood sampling or insulin administration devices, multi-dose vials, or single-use ampoules among patients and the failure to change gloves after handling intravascular catheters or performing capillary blood testing. Reusable patient care equipment should be cleaned and disinfected between patients in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions. The sharing of multi-dose vials among patients should be avoided. If it is necessary to share, a sterile syringe and sterile needle must be used each time the multi-dose vial is accessed.

REFERENCE:
Hospital-acquired malaria infections in the European Union – 30 April 2018, Stockholm, 2018.


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martes, 22 de mayo de 2018

Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens

The Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security conducted this study to elucidate the characteristics of naturally occurring microorganisms that constitute a global catastrophic biological risk (GCBR). GCBRs are defined as “those events in which biological agents—whether naturally emerging or reemerging, deliberately created and released, or laboratory engineered and escaped—could lead to sudden, extraordinary, widespread disaster beyond the collective capability of national and international governments and the private sector to control. If unchecked, GCBRs would lead to great suffering, loss of life, and sustained damage to national governments, international relationships, economies, societal stability, or global security.” The overarching aim of the study was to provide an inductive, microbe-agnostic analysis of the microbial world to identify fundamental principles that underlie this special category of microorganisms that have potential to cause global catastrophe. Such principles could refine pandemic preparedness by providing a new framework or lens through which to survey the threat landscape of infectious diseases in order to better anticipate, prepare for, and respond to GCBR threats.
REFERENCE:
Adalja AA, Watson M, Toner ES, Cicero A, Inglesby TV. The Characteristics of Pandemic Pathogens. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security; 2018. http://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/pubs_archive/pubs-pdfs/2018/180510-pandemic-pathogens-report.pdf. Accessed May 21, 2018.

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lunes, 21 de mayo de 2018

Quality of Candidate Strains of Transgenic Mosquitoes for Studies in Containment Facilities

Transgenic mosquitoes are being developed as novel components of area-wide approaches to vector-borne disease control. Best practice is to develop these in phases, beginning with laboratory studies, before moving to field testing and inclusion in control programs, to ensure safety and prevent costly field testing of unsuitable strains. The process of identifying and developing good candidate strains requires maintenance of transgenic colonies over many generations in containment facilities. By working in disease endemic countries with target vector populations, laboratory strains may be developed and selected for properties that will enhance intended control efficacy in the next phase, while avoiding traits that introduce unnecessary risks. Candidate strains aiming toward field use must consistently achieve established performance criteria, throughout the process of scaling up from small study colonies to production of sufficient numbers for field testing and possible open release. Maintenance of a consistent quality can be demonstrated by a set of insect quality and insectary operating indicators, measured over time at predetermined intervals. These indicators: inform comparability of studies using various candidate strains at different times and locations; provide evidence of conformity relevant to compliance with terms of approval for regulated use; and can be used to validate some assumptions related to risk assessments covering the contained phase and for release into the environment.
REFERENCE:
Mumford JD, et al. Maintaining Quality of Candidate Strains of Transgenic Mosquitoes for Studies in Containment Facilities in Disease Endemic Countries. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2018 Jan;18(1):31-38.


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miércoles, 16 de mayo de 2018

Antimicrobial Efficacy of Disinfecting Solutions of Contact Lenses

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to use antimicrobial efficacy endpoint methodology to determine compatibility of multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPSs), lens cases, and hydrogel lenses for disinfection (AEEMC) against International Organization for Standardization (ISO)-specified microorganisms and clinical ocular isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.
METHODS: Six MPSs (PQ/Aldox 1, 2, and 3; PQ/Alexidine; PQ/PHMB; and PHMB) were challenged against ISO-specified microorganisms and S. maltophilia using the AEEMC test. AEEMC tests were performed with and without balafilcon A, etafilcon A, and senofilcon A lenses in lens cases with organic soil. Exposure times included disinfection time (DT) and 24 hr. Additionally, all six MPSs were challenged with two strains of S. maltophilia, based on the ISO Stand-alone test.
RESULTS: The efficacy against bacteria for PQ/Aldox and PQ/Alexidine MPSs was not diminished by the presence of lenses. The efficacy of PQ/PHMB and PHMB MPSs against Serratia marcescens was significantly reduced compared with the no-lens control at DT for at least one lens type. The PHMB MPS with lenses present also demonstrated reduced efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus at DT versus the control. PQ/Aldox MPSs retained activity against Fusarium solani with lenses present; however, all other test MPSs demonstrated reduced F. solani efficacy at DT with lenses present. With lenses, all MPSs showed reduced efficacy against Candida albicans.
CONCLUSIONS: AEEMC antimicrobial efficacy test results vary based on challenge microorganism, contact lenses, and MPS biocide systems. This study highlights the importance of evaluating MPSs for compatibility with lenses and lens cases.
REFERENCE:

Gabriel MM, McAnally C, Bartell J. Antimicrobial Efficacy of Multipurpose Disinfecting Solutions in the Presence of Contact Lenses and Lens Cases. Eye Contact Lens. 2018 Mar;44(2):125-131.

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viernes, 11 de mayo de 2018

¡¡ OFERTA ESPECIAL HASTA EL 18 DE MAYO** !!


10° Simposio Internacional de Bioseguirdad y Biocustodia

del 5 al 8 de Junio 2018
Puerto Vallarta, Jalisco
México D.F. a Mayo 2018
¡¡ OFERTA ESPECIAL HASTA EL 18 DE MAYO** !!

OFERTA 1. PASE POR DÍA SIN HOSPEDAJE
Incluye: Inscripción a Curso/Simposio por día de las 8:00 am a las 6:00 pm del mismo día, Impuestos.
Desde: $ 1,500 Miembros, 
        $ 1,900 NO Miembros

OFERTA 2. PAQUETE TODO INCLUIDO
Incluye: Inscripción a Curso/Simposio por día, noche de hospedaje (habitación doble compartiendo), en el Hotel Sede Fiesta Americana, Puerto Vallarta, alimentos y bebidas de las 3:00 pm a las 12:00 pm del día siguiente, Impuestos.
Desde: $ 3,500 Miembros, 
        $ 4,100 NO Miembros
** Registro pagado


MESES SIN INTERESES
con tarjeta de crédito



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