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lunes, 14 de diciembre de 2015

Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Commercially Available Disinfectants and Cleaners

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is an animal pathogen of great concern. It is contagious to cloven-hoofed animals and affects animals in extensive areas worldwide. In general, the primary eradication strategies for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in Japan are stamping out the disease and restriction of movement. It is also important to completely disinfect the infected area to prevent the spread of FMDV, including vehicles and people as well. However, there is no report on the effect of commercially available disinfectants against FMDV in a short contact time. In this study, we evaluated the virucidal effect of thirteen commercially available products, and got the following results: acidic ethanol disinfectants, alkaline cleaners and sodium hypochlorite had great effect (>3.0 log10 reduction in titer) against FMDV. On the other hand, neutral ethanol disinfectants, hand soaps, and quaternary ammonium compound sanitizers did not show great effect against FMDV. Therefore, it is presumed that acidic ethanol disinfectants are effective for human use and alkaline cleaners are effective for use in the infected environment for the control of a FMD outbreak.
REFERENCE:
Harada Y. et al. Inactivation of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus by Commercially Available Disinfectants and Cleaners. Biocontrol Science, 2015, Vol. 20, No. 3, 205-208.
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lunes, 7 de diciembre de 2015

Capacity building in national influenza laboratories – use of laboratory assessments to drive progress

Background: Laboratory testing is a fundamental component of influenza surveillance for detecting novel strains with pandemic potential and informing biannual vaccine strain selection. The United States (U.S.) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), under the auspices of its WHO Collaborating Center for Influenza, is one of the major public health agencies which provides support globally to build national capacity for influenza surveillance. Our main objective was to determine if laboratory assessments supported capacity building efforts for improved global influenza surveillance.
Methods: In 2010, 35 national influenza laboratories were assessed in 34 countries, using a standardized tool. Post-assessment, each laboratory received a report with a list of recommendations for improvement. Uptake of recommendations were reviewed 3.2 mean years after the initial assessments and categorized as complete, in-progress, no action or no update. This was a retrospective study; follow-up took place through routine project management rather than at a set time-point post-assessment. WHO data on National Influenza Centre (NIC) designation, External Quality Assessment Project (EQAP) participation and FluNet reporting was used to measure laboratory capacity longitudinally and independently of the assessments. All data was further stratified by World Bank country income category.
Results: At follow-up, 81 % of 614 recommendations were either complete (350) or in-progress (145) for 32 laboratories (91 % response rate). The number of countries reporting to FluNet and the number of specimens they reported annually increased between 2005, when they were first funded by CDC, and 2010, the assessment year (p < 0.01). Improvements were also seen in EQAP participation and NIC designation over time and more so for low and lower-middle income countries.
Conclusions: Assessments using a standardized tool have been beneficial to improving laboratory-based influenza surveillance. Specific recommendations helped countries identify and prioritize areas for improvement. Data from assessments helped CDC focus its technical assistance by country and region. Low and lower-middle income countries made greater improvements in their laboratories compared with upper-middle income countries. Future research could include an analysis of annual funding and technical assistance by country. Our approach serves as an example for capacity building for other diseases.
REFERENCE:
Lucinda E. A. Johnson, et al. Capacity building in national influenza laboratories – use of laboratory assessments to drive progress. BMC Infect Dis. 2015; 15: 501.
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