A summary of the various types of biocides used in antiseptics and disinfectants, their chemical structures, and their clinical uses is shown in Table 1. It is important to note that many of these biocides may be used singly or in combination in a variety of products which vary considerably in activity against microorganisms. Antimicrobial activity can be inﬂuenced by many factors such as formulation effects, presence of an organic load, synergy, temperature, dilution, and test method. These issues are beyond the scope of this review and are discussed elsewhere (123, 425, 444, 446, 451).
REFERENCE:McDonnell G, Russell AD. Antiseptics and Disinfectants: Activity, Action, and Resistance. Clin. Microb. Rev. 1999. 12(1):147–179.